• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate one or more psychological exlpanations for Schizophrenia

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Outline and evaluate one or more psychological exlpanations for Schizophrenia. One psychological explanation for Schizophrenia (Sz) is the cognitive model. Sz according to the cognitive model suggests that faulty thought processes are linked to many schizophrenic symptoms, such as hallucinations and disordered thinking, which suggest a cognitive input. This explanation acknowledges the role of biological factors in causing the initial sensory experiences of Sz. The cognitive viewpoint is that maladaptive thinking is strongly linked to Sz and many of its symptoms such as hallucinations. A particular focus of interest has been the role of attention with the possibility that Schizophrenics cannot filter out irrelevant sensory information and so are bombarded with data that they cannot interpret meaningfully and therefore experience a different sensory world from that of others. Frith (1992) claimed that the filter between the conscious and the preconscious are faulty and so unimportant information gets into our conscious awareness and Schizophrenics feel they have to pay attention to it because it is important. Frith believes that auditory hallucinations come from being bombarded from sounds both verbal and non verbal and he believes that the preconscious mechanisms test out various hypotheses before a final interpretation is passed to the conscious awareness. Frith believes that this fault filter is underpinned by irregular neural pathways linking to the hippocampus to the pre-frontal cortex, which is linked to the faulty production of dopamine. ...read more.

Middle

On the other hand, there has been some promising research supporting his ideas however, this research involves the use of animals. This is a problem as we cannot learn much about human behaviour from animal experiments as humans live in a more complex social world and have much more complex cognitions. Therefore we cannot generalise any animal research findings to humans and at the very least we need to verify these animal findings with findings from human studies. We can also argue that cognitive explanations of Sz, such as Frith?s model are too reductionist in that they fail to take into account the role of environmental factors. Environmental factors such as the role of social and family relationships have contributed to explanations of Sz and so we cannot disregard them completely. Research has shown that a major stress factor has been associated with a higher risk of schizophrenic episodes is the occurrence of stressful life events, for example the death of a close relative. In a study by Brown and Birley, it was found that prior to a schizophrenic episode, patients who had experienced Sz had reported twice as many stressful life events compared to a healthy control group. Bateson et al also suggested the double-bind theory where children who receive contradictory messages from their parents are more likely o develop Sz. ...read more.

Conclusion

There is little empirical research evidence to suggest that Schizophrenics regress back to an earlier life stage, as most schizophrenics do not resemble very young children. The approach is also unscientific as it is different to falsify. For example, a person may admit to negative feelings or may deny such feelings-but such denial could be taken to indicate that they are simply regressing such feelings and so whatever the person says could be taken to indicate negative feelings The psychodynamic approach does not offer effective treatments. In general, psychodynamic treatments aim of find childhood conflicts however; this is no relevant for Sz. Comer found that psychodynamic therapy for Sz has generally proved to be unsuccessful which suggests that the psychodynamic explanation for Sz is not accurate. Recent research has actually suggested that psychodynamic therapies far from making schizophrenics better, may actually make them worse which suggests that the explanation is heavily flawed. Rosen tried to claim some success with the treatment of psychoanalysis however; he was heavily criticised and accusing of using patients who were not Sz and faking data. Therefore his data was discredited. The psychodynamic theory also does not account for why Sz develops so suddenly in late teens and early twenties, and therefore emphasised the importance of biological factors To support the psychodynamic explanation of Sz, some of the symptoms such as loss of contact with reality, can be accounted for with the regression to an early stage of development. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis ...

    Throughout Ishmael?s story he is critical of his own thought and behaviors, often questioning his desires to live. However, he remains a voice of resilience and true courage. I chose this book because I have always been intrigued by the many cultures in Africa, but especially the idea of a child being a soldier.

  2. Experiment. Are bilingual people more proficient at multitasking between cognitive tasks?

    0 15 Female Year 10 No 3.14 0 14 Male Year 10 No 3.19 0 15 Male Year 10 No 2.48 0 14 Female Year 10 Yes Bangla 3.97 0 15 Female Year 11 Yes Arabic, Greek, French 2.60 0 Discussion My investigation disproved my hypothesis as monolinguals were more proficient in the multitasking test than bilinguals.

  1. This essay will evaluate flashbulb memory on how emotion can affect cognitive process.

    too little arousal, as people would less likely process all information from lack of attention. Moderate levels of stirred emotion, however, general improve recall accuracy. The eyewitness theory (EWT) demonstrates that memory recall is improved by heightened physiological reactions. As explained, flashbulb memory states that the emotional impact of the event is so strong that it imprints a long-lasting memory.

  2. Using empirical evidence examine the concepts of normality and abnormality

    wrong in their lives, transformed how depression was seen by general practitioners and psychiatrists in Britain. Regarding the definition of abnormality the humanistic psychologist Marie Jahoda took a different approach in that instead of defining what is abnormal, she tried to define what is normal.

  1. Examine how one or more factors (biological, cognitive, socio-cultural) influence either one specific anxiety ...

    Moreover, there is on clear, objective way of assessing improvement for PTSD as there may be a reporting bias or intense anxiety or preoccupation on the part of the patient may affect the process of communication.

  2. Schema Theory and Theories of Cognitive Processes

    was put forward partly as a result of the criticism leveled at the multi-store model. Instead of concentrating on the stores/structures involved such as short term and long term memory, this theory concentrates on the processes involved in memory. Craik and Lockhart suggest that we can process information in 3

  1. Psychology biological level of analysis revision

    Noradrenalin and Depression Janowsky et al conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of decreased noradrenalin on depression in 1972.

  2. Where does Schizophrenia Lie in the Spectrum of Nature vs Nurture?

    Secondly, paranoid schizophrenia involves ?hallucinations involving paranoid ideation? as well as delusions. Common types of delusions that are evident in paranoid schizophrenia are the Delusion of Persecution, the Delusion of Jealousy, the Delusion of Grandeur, and the Delusion of Reference. Catatonic schizophrenia is one of the major types of schizophrenia.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work