• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and evaluate one or more psychological exlpanations for Schizophrenia

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Outline and evaluate one or more psychological exlpanations for Schizophrenia. One psychological explanation for Schizophrenia (Sz) is the cognitive model. Sz according to the cognitive model suggests that faulty thought processes are linked to many schizophrenic symptoms, such as hallucinations and disordered thinking, which suggest a cognitive input. This explanation acknowledges the role of biological factors in causing the initial sensory experiences of Sz. The cognitive viewpoint is that maladaptive thinking is strongly linked to Sz and many of its symptoms such as hallucinations. A particular focus of interest has been the role of attention with the possibility that Schizophrenics cannot filter out irrelevant sensory information and so are bombarded with data that they cannot interpret meaningfully and therefore experience a different sensory world from that of others. Frith (1992) claimed that the filter between the conscious and the preconscious are faulty and so unimportant information gets into our conscious awareness and Schizophrenics feel they have to pay attention to it because it is important. Frith believes that auditory hallucinations come from being bombarded from sounds both verbal and non verbal and he believes that the preconscious mechanisms test out various hypotheses before a final interpretation is passed to the conscious awareness. Frith believes that this fault filter is underpinned by irregular neural pathways linking to the hippocampus to the pre-frontal cortex, which is linked to the faulty production of dopamine. ...read more.

Middle

On the other hand, there has been some promising research supporting his ideas however, this research involves the use of animals. This is a problem as we cannot learn much about human behaviour from animal experiments as humans live in a more complex social world and have much more complex cognitions. Therefore we cannot generalise any animal research findings to humans and at the very least we need to verify these animal findings with findings from human studies. We can also argue that cognitive explanations of Sz, such as Frith?s model are too reductionist in that they fail to take into account the role of environmental factors. Environmental factors such as the role of social and family relationships have contributed to explanations of Sz and so we cannot disregard them completely. Research has shown that a major stress factor has been associated with a higher risk of schizophrenic episodes is the occurrence of stressful life events, for example the death of a close relative. In a study by Brown and Birley, it was found that prior to a schizophrenic episode, patients who had experienced Sz had reported twice as many stressful life events compared to a healthy control group. Bateson et al also suggested the double-bind theory where children who receive contradictory messages from their parents are more likely o develop Sz. ...read more.

Conclusion

There is little empirical research evidence to suggest that Schizophrenics regress back to an earlier life stage, as most schizophrenics do not resemble very young children. The approach is also unscientific as it is different to falsify. For example, a person may admit to negative feelings or may deny such feelings-but such denial could be taken to indicate that they are simply regressing such feelings and so whatever the person says could be taken to indicate negative feelings The psychodynamic approach does not offer effective treatments. In general, psychodynamic treatments aim of find childhood conflicts however; this is no relevant for Sz. Comer found that psychodynamic therapy for Sz has generally proved to be unsuccessful which suggests that the psychodynamic explanation for Sz is not accurate. Recent research has actually suggested that psychodynamic therapies far from making schizophrenics better, may actually make them worse which suggests that the explanation is heavily flawed. Rosen tried to claim some success with the treatment of psychoanalysis however; he was heavily criticised and accusing of using patients who were not Sz and faking data. Therefore his data was discredited. The psychodynamic theory also does not account for why Sz develops so suddenly in late teens and early twenties, and therefore emphasised the importance of biological factors To support the psychodynamic explanation of Sz, some of the symptoms such as loss of contact with reality, can be accounted for with the regression to an early stage of development. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour.

    Unless somebody has the disposition to obey, no obedience will occur. What happened in Milgram's experiment, from this point of view, was that the disposition to obey, cooperate with, or be liked by the experimenter, proved stronger than rival dispositions to be compassionate towards the victim or act according to one's conscience.

  2. I am going to talk about cognitive processes of memory and how biological factors ...

    Acetylcholine is particularly prevalent in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is very much involved in the formation of new memories. The hippocampus of normal people contains high concentrations of acetylcholine. Low concentrations are found in people with AD. This is the outcome of severe brain tissue loss in the areas of the forebrain which are known to secrete acetylcholine.

  1. To what extent is psychodynamic effective in its application to everyday life?

    The situation reached the climax when Herr K. went after her in a vacation house they had shared but she rejected him but she also remained silent. Every night for 2 weeks she had the same nightmare after which she accompanied her father on a business trip where she told him about Herr K.

  2. Essay outline for Topic 2 & 3

    The boys became less hostile and started making friends. -Results: in the hostility phase, 93% had friends within their own group, after the cooperation phase, 30% had friends between the two groups. Before the cooperation phase, Eagles: 7%, Rattlers: 5% had friends in the other group. After the cooperation phase, Eagles: 25%, Rattlers 37% had friends in the other group.

  1. This essay will evaluate flashbulb memory on how emotion can affect cognitive process.

    too little arousal, as people would less likely process all information from lack of attention. Moderate levels of stirred emotion, however, general improve recall accuracy. The eyewitness theory (EWT) demonstrates that memory recall is improved by heightened physiological reactions. As explained, flashbulb memory states that the emotional impact of the event is so strong that it imprints a long-lasting memory.

  2. Where does Schizophrenia Lie in the Spectrum of Nature vs Nurture?

    A schizophrenic cannot keep track with their ideas thus, they drift from one thought to another making it hard to converse with them because their thought speech is jumbled. Negative symptoms are symptoms that represent a lack of function that a healthy person might have.

  1. Examine how one or more factors (biological, cognitive, socio-cultural) influence either one specific anxiety ...

    Moreover, there is on clear, objective way of assessing improvement for PTSD as there may be a reporting bias or intense anxiety or preoccupation on the part of the patient may affect the process of communication.

  2. Using empirical evidence examine the concepts of normality and abnormality

    When people violate such social rules, other people have a tendency to assume that there is something wrong with them. However, there are also many limitations regarding this definition of abnormality. First of all, social norms vary across cultures and social norms.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work