• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline principles that define cognitive level of analysis

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Outline principles that define cognitive level of analysis (8mks) Cognitive psychology deals with how the mind functions and responds to the things that we see around us. It involves mental tasks, perception, thinking and problem solving. There are three main principles that highlight the cognitive level of analysis. The first principle that defines this level of analysis is that human beings are information processors and that mental processes guide behaviour. This simple means that there is a relationship between how people think and behave. Information is transformed and organized according to the way people perceive and interpret what is going on around them. This principle was demonstrated in Darley and Gross?s experiment. In this experiment, they showed to their participants, videos of a girl playing in a poor environment then in a wealthy environment. ...read more.

Middle

The second principle is that the mind can be studied scientifically by developing theories and using a number of scientific research methods. These experiments are usually controlled in a lab where the main aim is to isolate a particular component of the cognitive processes for the study. This helps psychologists to find the cause-effect relationship between different things that we observe in our daily lives. This principle can be illustrated by the Loftus and Palmer experiment. They carried out this experiment to test the reconstructive memory in relation to eye witness testimony. The aim was to see whether misleading could distort memory. Participants were shown a video clip of a car crash and were asked to estimate the speed of the car based on questions that used different words to describe the car crash such as ?smash?. ...read more.

Conclusion

Research has shown that cognitive processes such as perception, memory and thinking are influenced by sociocultural factors. Bartlett introduced the concept of ?cultural schema? which is defined as the mental representation of knowledge. He suggested that schemas influence memory and that they lead to reconstructive memory. This principle is demonstrated in Bartlett?s experiment. He asked a few British participants to read an unfamiliar Native American story and reproduce it. It appeared that the participants found it difficult to reproduce the same story because of its unfamiliar style and content. As a result, participants made the story shorter. However, it maintained the same content no matter how distorted it was. The story also became more conventional ? that is ,it retained only those details that could be assimilated to the shared past experience and cultural backgrounds of the participants. This shows that previous knowledge determines the way people interpret incoming information and memory. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Testing the effect of different types of music on memory.

    This allows the participants to not relate to the song as much as other familiar songs and thus is a less of a distraction than familiar music. However, the participants for this experiment were all aged between 15 to 16 years of age.

  2. Internal Assessment : Loftus and Palmer Study

    5.The students are now asked 5 critical questions (4 for each ) having to do with the speed of the vehicle in the collision .

  1. I am going to talk about cognitive processes of memory and how biological factors ...

    Alzheimer's disease is a serious degenerative brain disease. The main symptoms of AD relate to memory impairment. For example, symptoms such as difficulty speaking and understanding language, problems with focusing attention, impaired movement or altered personality are all pertinent to AD.

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of categorical organisation on the recall of words ...

    * Consent Form (appendix 1) * Standardised instructions (appendix 2) * Debrief Form (appendix 3) * Page A- Hierarchy of the words (appendix 4) * Page B- Unorganised order of the words (appendix 5) * Stop watch * Pen/Pencil for each participant * Pass one consent form to each participant

  1. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis ...

    At first, they thought that they had finally found a haven away from the war. Apart from the presence of soldiers, the village reminded Ishmael of his own village. There was busy conversation, children playing soccer, and people busy at their daily tasks.

  2. Discuss How and Why Particular Research Methods Are Used at the Cognitive Level of ...

    Case studies allow researchers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological events (e.g., brain damage) on cognitive processing. It allows for the collection of data about individuals that might not be available otherwise. However case studies do not represent a larger group.

  1. Schema Theory and Theories of Cognitive Processes

    Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (semantic) and others in a shallow way (structural and phonemic).

  2. Is eyewitness testimony reliable?

    Our behavior is guided by the set of schemas that we have in our brain. The new experiences that we face are not just ?replicated? into our memory but instead are reconstructed in order to fit our schemas. The reconstruction of memory is an active process and happens throughout our life (Gross, 64).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work