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A partial replication of Dukes and Bastian study on the recall of Concrete and Abstract Words Psychology Internal Assessment Psychology Standard Level Paul Bao Candidate Number: cxd791 03.04.09 Word Count: Contents Abstract 1 Introduction 1 Method 2 Design 2 Participants 3 Materials/Apparatus 3 Procedure .3 Results 4 Discussion 4 References 5 Appendices 6 Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate dual-coding in the performance of memory (Pavio, 1969). The experiment was a partial replication of Dukes and Bastian (1966), to establish if a list of concrete words would be better recalled than a list of abstract words in immediate free recall. The participants consisted of 17 students from a selective school in Queensland, all 13 to 16 years of age. The experiment was of a single blind, repeated measures design. Participants were required to view and recall four sets of eight abstract words and four sets of eight concrete words. The dependent variable was the number of words recalled in each set, the independent variable was the type (concrete and abstract) of words recalled. The experimental environment was controlled to ensure the accuracy and validity of the results obtained. The mean recall of the concrete words was 21.41 words, and the mean recall of the abstract words was 16.71 words. ...read more.


Standardised instructions (Appendix 6) were read by the experimenter and time was provided for any queries or questions before the testing commenced. Study phase Word lists were presented on the projector screen through the laptop computer. Recall/Test phase After each trial of eight words, participants were given 30 seconds to recall the words they could on the participant response sheet. Debriefing phase When testing was completed, participant response sheets were required to be handed back and a debrief statement (Appendix 7) was verbally communicated to the participants by the experimenter. Results The maximum recall of each type of word was 32 words. After the experiment was conducted, the results were placed in a Raw Data Table (Appendix 2). The mean recall of concrete and abstract words was calculated and is presented in the graph below. The mean recall of the concrete words was 21.41 words, and the mean recall of the abstract words was 16.71 words, this was out of a maximum total of 32 for both abstract and concrete words. These results help support Dukes and Bastian (1966) by determining that concrete words (M = 21.41) have a higher mean recall than abstract words (M = 16.71). Discussion The results show that the mean recall of the concrete words was higher than the mean recall of the abstract words. ...read more.


All results will be reported as aggregate data only. Responsibilities of the Participant: It is the responsibility of the participant to fully disclose information which could affect safety or the value of the research. Freedom of Consent: Participation in this study is entirely voluntary. You will be free to withdraw from the experiment at any time and to withdraw your personal data and responses. Inquiries: If you have any questions please contact the project supervisor: Ms. Zainab Ali Contact Details: Bywong Street, (P.O. Box 303), Toowong, Q. 4066 Ph: 3377 9333 Fax: 3377 9300 Email: zali17@eq.edu.au Appendix 6 Standardised Instructions In this experiment you will be required to recall short lists of words. Each list is made up of eight words. Words will be displayed on the projector screen every two seconds. You are required to write down the words you have recalled after each set, you will be given 30 seconds to do so on the participant response sheet. You do not need to write the words in any particular order. There will be 8 tests in total. Do you have any questions before we begin? Appendix 7 Debriefing Statement This experiment was aimed to be a replication of Dukes and Bastian (1966) study. This experiment measures the mean recall of abstract words compared to concrete words. The results collected from this experiment will be compared to the Dukes and Bastian results. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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