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Psychology Essay

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Introduction

Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process The cognitive level of analysis deals with the structure and functions of the mind. Some researchers believe that biological factors may affect cognitive processes. Kandel, one researcher, shows that learning means formation of a memory-that is, growing new connections or strengthening existing connections between neurons to form neural networks. Over time, researchers have used animals to study how areas of the brain are related to memory. Usually, animals learn to execute a particular task-for example, running through a maze-and, ultimately, a memory is formed. Researchers then cut away some parts of brain tissue in order to find out what areas of the brain are involved in such a task. ...read more.

Middle

consists of several stores. Damage to different parts of the brain affects factual knowledge, for example, how to work a laundry machine. We can conclude that brain damage can affect one type of memory but leaves others intact. Scientists map the structures of long-term memory in order to explain how specific areas of the brain affect specific kinds of memory. LTM is divided into two systems: the first is explicit memory, or declarative, which consists of fact-based information that can be consciously retrieved. This kind of memory focuses on "knowing what." This explicit memory is then divided into two subsystems, semantic memory and episodic memory. ...read more.

Conclusion

They have also concluded that damage to the hippocampus will result in the inability to form explicit memories. However, they can form implicit memories. Also, researchers have shown that the amygdala plays a large role in the storage of emotional memories. This is maybe because emotions are used to evaluate experience. LeDoux, a neuroscientist, hypothesizes that certain memories have emotional significance and this might explain why memories based on emotional events are remembered better. This can also explain why people suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. These researchers are beginning to gradually discover more information about how the brain regulates and maintains emotional experience. And with the damage of certain areas of the brain, emotional memories are hard to eliminate and as a result, emotional outburst are harder to contain. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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