• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology essay-Discuss evidence which suggests that physiological mechanism and emotion are co related.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

5. Psychology Essay-Discuss evidence which suggests that physiological mechanism and emotion are co related. During the 19th century, psychologists started to think about behaviour through a physiological perspective. One of the first was Charles Darwin who studied emotions alone through a biological perspective. This was the foundation of forming certain areas of science such as neuroanatomy. The biological origin of emotion was also through William James in 1884 who briefly suggested that emotions are functions of sensory and motor areas of the brain. This theory was then supported further by Cannon and Bard in the 20th century who showed that emotional reactions require the use of the brain's hypothalamus. As psychologists researched more about the physiological mechanism and the brain, they realized that there was a clear link between this mechanism and emotion. Psychologists define emotion in terms of combinations of three dimensions although these can vary according to interpretation although there are 6 universal emotions proposed by Ekman et al. which can be recognized universally as they are all expressed facially in the same way despite individual and cultural differences. ...read more.

Middle

who observed that male adults who had spinal cord injuries and suffered autonomic nervous system damage had significant changes in the nature and intensity of certain emotional experiences including anger and fear. Research has demonstrated that many parts of the brain are specifically involved in the expression of different emotions. E.g. the frontal cortex and the limbic system are centres of aggression and fear. Researchers also found that people with emotions such as phobias may have a dysfunction in their prefrontal cortex which is then difficult to undo. Many hormones are involved in emotion, e.g. androgens are involved in aggression. An experiment which clearly shows the relation between emotion and biological changes is the one conducted by Valins and Laird where false feedback paradigms of posters still created an increase in heart rate of the participants. Emotions consist of a conscious experience as well as physiological and neurological reactions which are either voluntary or involuntary. Sometimes when a strong emotion is recalled, such as fear, the same physiological changes occur which were present at the time of the emotion-this was theorized by LeDoux and depends on how strong the emotion was and how it was stored in the memory. ...read more.

Conclusion

Most of the emotions have similar physiological changes such as increase heart rate, increase in temperature and possibly sweating. Researchers such as Levenson et al. have even identified a small number of fairly reliable differences in patterns in the nervous system when negative emotions (anger, fear etc) are compared to positive emotions (happiness). Even stress which can be considered as an emotion is related to the physiological mechanism as a large amount of stress can cause health related problems such as high blood pressure, ulcers and heart attacks. This is because the body reacts to emotions such as stress where the autonomic nervous system is activated in a process called the alarm reaction in the general adaptations syndrome. In conclusion, there is a lot of evidence that supports the relation between emotions and physiological mechanism although it has been argued against by a few psychologists. Many of the theories have been altered as psychologists study other theories trying to come up with more accurate results. After researching, psychologists have realised that many of the emotions not only create physiological changes but are caused by the body including the brain, the nervous system and the endocrine system. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. The Basic Mechanisms of Homeostasis Overview of homeostasis The term homeostasis was ...

    Lazarsfeld et al. (1945) initially assumed that messages were transmitted from the mass media to a 'mass audience', who absorb the message . However, their work suggests that only 5% of people change their voting behaviour as a result of media messages.

  2. SL Psychology IA - Iconic Memory

    auditory cue in the form of a tone 500ms after viewing the stimulus. Three differently pitched tones were used to correspond to the three rows of letters in the display (Appendix C). The second PR group received this cue 2 seconds (2000ms)

  1. Anger and Aggression in Males and Females

    has the intention to harm, because even if they does not internally intend to hurt, they may actually hurt and this is often perceived by others as aggressive behavior. CANDIDATE NUMBER: 000771 - 030 ORIGINS OF ANGER AND AGGRESSION Two areas seem to be of importance in the issue of origins of anger and aggression: biological predispositions and social environment.

  2. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    brain scans 1. PET or CAT (especially in cases of schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease) 1. Artificial environment, therefore the participants may act differently 2. Act under demand characteristics 3. Expensive, requires expert 4. Ethical findings on abnormalities in the brain 5. Useful, because you can look at brain activity to see to what extent brain activity has effects on abnormal behavior 1.

  1. To what extent is positive education in classroom settings successful in enhancing students happiness?

    It is time consuming and it requires that the teachers have been taught how to use positive education in classes. Conclusion Through out this essay the research question ?to what extent is positive psychology in classroom settings successful in enhancing students? happiness?? has been answered.

  2. Is eyewitness testimony reliable?

    to recognize the same individual in later line-ups even though that individual may not be the performer). Jury?s place great reliance on eyewitness testimony and ignore the dangers of false memories (Engelhardt, n.d). In view of these findings, this work will investigate the ?extent to which eyewitness testimony is reliable

  1. This essay will evaluate flashbulb memory on how emotion can affect cognitive process.

    The attack on WTC was also used as an opportunistic chance for experimentation in Talarico and Rubin (2003)?s study. The researchers asked a random sample of people to recall what had happened 1, 7, 42, and 224 day(s) after the attack and after a day-to-day event.

  2. Evaluate two studies related to abnormal psychology

    In addition, the sample is non-representative since it is a purposive sampling, and therefore it is difficult to generalize. On the other hand, theoretical generalizations can be made and new theories can emerge that potentially can be generalized. Moreover, a significant problem of this study is memory distortions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work