• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology essay-Discuss evidence which suggests that physiological mechanism and emotion are co related.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

5. Psychology Essay-Discuss evidence which suggests that physiological mechanism and emotion are co related. During the 19th century, psychologists started to think about behaviour through a physiological perspective. One of the first was Charles Darwin who studied emotions alone through a biological perspective. This was the foundation of forming certain areas of science such as neuroanatomy. The biological origin of emotion was also through William James in 1884 who briefly suggested that emotions are functions of sensory and motor areas of the brain. This theory was then supported further by Cannon and Bard in the 20th century who showed that emotional reactions require the use of the brain's hypothalamus. As psychologists researched more about the physiological mechanism and the brain, they realized that there was a clear link between this mechanism and emotion. Psychologists define emotion in terms of combinations of three dimensions although these can vary according to interpretation although there are 6 universal emotions proposed by Ekman et al. which can be recognized universally as they are all expressed facially in the same way despite individual and cultural differences. ...read more.

Middle

who observed that male adults who had spinal cord injuries and suffered autonomic nervous system damage had significant changes in the nature and intensity of certain emotional experiences including anger and fear. Research has demonstrated that many parts of the brain are specifically involved in the expression of different emotions. E.g. the frontal cortex and the limbic system are centres of aggression and fear. Researchers also found that people with emotions such as phobias may have a dysfunction in their prefrontal cortex which is then difficult to undo. Many hormones are involved in emotion, e.g. androgens are involved in aggression. An experiment which clearly shows the relation between emotion and biological changes is the one conducted by Valins and Laird where false feedback paradigms of posters still created an increase in heart rate of the participants. Emotions consist of a conscious experience as well as physiological and neurological reactions which are either voluntary or involuntary. Sometimes when a strong emotion is recalled, such as fear, the same physiological changes occur which were present at the time of the emotion-this was theorized by LeDoux and depends on how strong the emotion was and how it was stored in the memory. ...read more.

Conclusion

Most of the emotions have similar physiological changes such as increase heart rate, increase in temperature and possibly sweating. Researchers such as Levenson et al. have even identified a small number of fairly reliable differences in patterns in the nervous system when negative emotions (anger, fear etc) are compared to positive emotions (happiness). Even stress which can be considered as an emotion is related to the physiological mechanism as a large amount of stress can cause health related problems such as high blood pressure, ulcers and heart attacks. This is because the body reacts to emotions such as stress where the autonomic nervous system is activated in a process called the alarm reaction in the general adaptations syndrome. In conclusion, there is a lot of evidence that supports the relation between emotions and physiological mechanism although it has been argued against by a few psychologists. Many of the theories have been altered as psychologists study other theories trying to come up with more accurate results. After researching, psychologists have realised that many of the emotions not only create physiological changes but are caused by the body including the brain, the nervous system and the endocrine system. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. The Basic Mechanisms of Homeostasis Overview of homeostasis The term homeostasis was ...

    The article was written by PER, an organisation that promotes the interests of minority groups. However, honest contributions from the police, newspapers and Romani elite, improved the validity of the racist connotations prevalent throughout the piece. It was a longevity study where articles were analysed over a 6 year period.

  2. Anger and Aggression in Males and Females

    By contrast, trait anger is construed as a stable, personality disposition that reflects an individual's propensity to experience anger across a variety of situations (Spielberger, 1988 in Kring, 2000). Individuals high in trait anger are hypothesized to experience more intense and frequent state anger (Kring, 2000).

  1. Abu Ghraib Psychology Essay. What do you think you would do in a ...

    Furthermore, General Miller had been running prison operations in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba prior to being assigned to the Abu Ghraib prison. As a support to the actions executed in Abu Ghraib, in 2004, the Bush Administration released a formally classified document that showed General Rumsfeld had approved many extreme techniques.

  2. Explain how environmental processes can affect one physiological process.

    of neurons to be active simultaneously to process neural evidence; the more neurons activated, the better the brain can gain more knowledge. Mainly there are two effects of the environment, the environmental effects on dendritic branching (development of connections between neurons in the brain), and (2)

  1. Ethics In Psychology

    experience pain or discomfort in the same way that humans do, which means that the level of suffering for these animals is considerably less than what is purported by animal rights groups. While animal rights activists publish articles about the torture inflicted upon monkeys and apes, our close genetic relatives,

  2. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    brain scans 1. PET or CAT (especially in cases of schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease) 1. Artificial environment, therefore the participants may act differently 2. Act under demand characteristics 3. Expensive, requires expert 4. Ethical findings on abnormalities in the brain 5. Useful, because you can look at brain activity to see to what extent brain activity has effects on abnormal behavior 1.

  1. This essay will evaluate flashbulb memory on how emotion can affect cognitive process.

    theory?an inflexible account of features surrounding the event is made?is wrong since erroneous memory occurs in recall. According to various research, the strong emotional relevance and consequences to self are important to constitute flashbulb memory. Surprise, on the other hand was not well supported by empirical evidence.

  2. Psychology biological level of analysis revision

    Acute stressors appear suddenly but don?t last very long. The body becomes alert to deal with the stress and then returns to homeostasis. The real problem is the chronic stressors, which last for a long time and are a constant source of worry.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work