• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The behavioural approach is the assumption that behaviour is learned. Experience and interactions with the environment make us what we are. This perspective has been called environment determinism because it suggests that we are determined by the environm

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction The behavioural approach is the assumption that behaviour is learned. Experience and interactions with the environment make us what we are. This perspective has been called environment determinism because it suggests that we are determined by the environments in which we exist. The main features of behaviourist theory The second assumption is that all behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning theory. Conditioning refers to changing behaviour in the absorbable behaviour. The third main assumption is that we need to look no further than the behaviours we can observe in order to understand and explain how humans and non-humans animals operate. It is sufficient to be concerned only with external and observable behaviour. A further assumption of the behaviour approach is that humans and non- human animals are only qualitatively different. This is supported by the theory of evolution which suggests that all animals have evolved from common ancestors and are built from the same unit. Much behaviorist research is conducted with non-human animals. It is important to recognize the contrasting perspectives within behaviourism; * Methodological behaviourism; the view that all perspectives use some behaviourist concepts to explain behaviour. ...read more.

Middle

is credited with the theory of ''operant conditioning.'' Skinner developed an apparatus which allowed him to observe and record the frequency of an animal behaviour (now called the Skinner box). Skinner found that when a hungry rat was placed in the box, it would engage in random behaviour. Eventually, purely by accident, the rat would press the lever. At this point, the rat was automatically reinforced with a food pellet. Skinner discovered that if food was present the level was pressed more frequently. However, if a mild electric current, was given to the rat when the level was pressed, level-pressing decreased significantly. He recognized that he could influence the animal's behaviour. Skinner defined a reinforcement as anything that increases the frequency of response. Positive out comes to children behaviour. Negative outcomes to children behaviour. Behaviourist use an ABC approach to understanding behaviour. * A stands for antecedents; what is happening just before it occurs. * B stands for behaviour; what the person is actually doing. * C stands for consequences what happens next. ...read more.

Conclusion

It has been used to control problem behaviours such as aggression and disorders such as phobias. It is based on the assumption that what is leaned can be unlearned. There is no doubt that conditioning both classical and operant is a fundamental part of psychological explanations and of great benefits to the health and social care perspective. Behaviourist approaches are used by a wide range of practitioners e.g. clinical and used by a wide range of practitioners e.g. clinical and educational psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech and language therapies, teaching and learning assistants, nurses and care workers. Social skills training is also related to learning theory and may be the only way to skills, such as teaching autistic child some basic self-care. Broad best (1961) argued that behaviourism is the best method of rational advance in psychology. However there is negative criticisms that are leveled at the behavioural approach. It suggests that criticism is not true of social learning as a more active participant in their experiences. The behavioural approach is also reductionism reducing complex behaviour to stimulus - response links. However, these weaknesses are also strengths because they enable behaviourism to be highly appropriate for experimental research, which is needed in health and social care. ?? ?? ?? ?? Ciara Fegan ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Free will Vs Determinism essay

    science, but in Watson's aggressive program in a field as vast as human behavior it was especially damaging." He tried to prove that we are affected by our environment by conditioning a pigeon to do things in order to get a reward.

  2. Anger and Aggression in Males and Females

    As a further source for development of aggressive behavior serve childhood experiences, especially rejection and physical punishment by parents, together with permissiveness or approval for aggression (Argyle, 1994). In this time, people learn how to behave in terms of becoming part of the society.

  1. Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour.

    trait theory, thus supporting the trait theory in the condition that an appropriate time frame is adopted. For the method a correlational study was used. A correlational study is used to look for relationships between variables; it is a non-experimental method, as the independent variables are not manipulated.

  2. To what extent does the biological level of analysis explain behaviour?

    the presence of light (Crane & Hannibal, 2009), and is most commonly associated with helping to regulate sleep cycles (Beck, 2010). Yet, according to researchers of hormones, it also has mixed properties; among some species increased levels of melatonin caused reduced aggression, while in others it increased aggression.

  1. Evaluate the role that one cultural dimension (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may have on ...

    Hazan and Shaver (1978) supports this idea. It finds out that loving and stable relationship are associated with loving and affectionate parenting at young age while insecure lovers (who are more likely to divorce) often reported having cold and rejecting mothers. This shows that early attachment style can affect adulthood relationship, which is associated with divorce rates.

  2. To what extent does research into conformity allow us to make predictions on individual ...

    At first the confederates gave the right answers, then the first confederate gave the incorrect answer and the rest of the confederates followed suit. Over 70% of participants conformed at least once when the previous four peers gave the incorrect answer, even though it is clearly obvious that the answer is wrong.

  1. Explain the relationship between culture and health

    Other studies on mice have also found that mice that were isolated had 50% less of an enzyme, 5-alpha reductase type 1 which when in short supply also reduces the level of the hormone which has been found to explain aggressive behavior, perhaps related to anxiety in the isolated mice.

  2. Psychology biological level of analysis revision

    The first group was injected with scopolamine, which decreases acetylcholine by blocking acetylcholine receptor sites. The second group was injected with physostigmine, which blocks cholinesterase production. The role of cholinesterase is to clean up acetylcholine from the synapse, if it is decreased, acetylcholine is increased.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work