• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The behavioural approach is the assumption that behaviour is learned. Experience and interactions with the environment make us what we are. This perspective has been called environment determinism because it suggests that we are determined by the environm

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction The behavioural approach is the assumption that behaviour is learned. Experience and interactions with the environment make us what we are. This perspective has been called environment determinism because it suggests that we are determined by the environments in which we exist. The main features of behaviourist theory The second assumption is that all behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning theory. Conditioning refers to changing behaviour in the absorbable behaviour. The third main assumption is that we need to look no further than the behaviours we can observe in order to understand and explain how humans and non-humans animals operate. It is sufficient to be concerned only with external and observable behaviour. A further assumption of the behaviour approach is that humans and non- human animals are only qualitatively different. This is supported by the theory of evolution which suggests that all animals have evolved from common ancestors and are built from the same unit. Much behaviorist research is conducted with non-human animals. It is important to recognize the contrasting perspectives within behaviourism; * Methodological behaviourism; the view that all perspectives use some behaviourist concepts to explain behaviour. ...read more.

Middle

is credited with the theory of ''operant conditioning.'' Skinner developed an apparatus which allowed him to observe and record the frequency of an animal behaviour (now called the Skinner box). Skinner found that when a hungry rat was placed in the box, it would engage in random behaviour. Eventually, purely by accident, the rat would press the lever. At this point, the rat was automatically reinforced with a food pellet. Skinner discovered that if food was present the level was pressed more frequently. However, if a mild electric current, was given to the rat when the level was pressed, level-pressing decreased significantly. He recognized that he could influence the animal's behaviour. Skinner defined a reinforcement as anything that increases the frequency of response. Positive out comes to children behaviour. Negative outcomes to children behaviour. Behaviourist use an ABC approach to understanding behaviour. * A stands for antecedents; what is happening just before it occurs. * B stands for behaviour; what the person is actually doing. * C stands for consequences what happens next. ...read more.

Conclusion

It has been used to control problem behaviours such as aggression and disorders such as phobias. It is based on the assumption that what is leaned can be unlearned. There is no doubt that conditioning both classical and operant is a fundamental part of psychological explanations and of great benefits to the health and social care perspective. Behaviourist approaches are used by a wide range of practitioners e.g. clinical and used by a wide range of practitioners e.g. clinical and educational psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech and language therapies, teaching and learning assistants, nurses and care workers. Social skills training is also related to learning theory and may be the only way to skills, such as teaching autistic child some basic self-care. Broad best (1961) argued that behaviourism is the best method of rational advance in psychology. However there is negative criticisms that are leveled at the behavioural approach. It suggests that criticism is not true of social learning as a more active participant in their experiences. The behavioural approach is also reductionism reducing complex behaviour to stimulus - response links. However, these weaknesses are also strengths because they enable behaviourism to be highly appropriate for experimental research, which is needed in health and social care. ?? ?? ?? ?? Ciara Fegan ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Examine the Concepts of Normality & Abnormality

    Whilst some symptoms such as aggression were more important in Pakistani culture than others, Tabassum focused on the differences between 'emic definitions' or depressive symptoms with existing predominant etic ones used by western psychiatrists, and expressed concern over how they dictated Pakistanis as being mentally healthy or unhealthy.

  2. Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour.

    This study was a laboratory experiment meaning that it was conducted in a controlled setting and the variables were strictly controlled by the experimenter. As the participants were volunteers, responding to a newspaper advertisement, a self-selecting sampling technique was used.

  1. An Investigation of the Effect the Presence of Different Genres of Music Have on ...

    a decrease in reaction rate compared with the presence of no music. Heavy metal caused a slower reaction rate than classical music, but both were slower than the reaction rate in the presence of no music.

  2. Anger and Aggression in Males and Females

    Biological factors seem to be different for anger and aggression. For anger, before presenting the actual origins, it is important to distinguish between state anger and trait anger. State anger is defined as a momentary experience of anger that occurs in response to some event or person in the environment (Kring, 2000).

  1. Free will Vs Determinism essay

    science, but in Watson's aggressive program in a field as vast as human behavior it was especially damaging." He tried to prove that we are affected by our environment by conditioning a pigeon to do things in order to get a reward.

  2. Understanding Childrens Behaviour. The purpose of this writing is to explore the theoretical ...

    Skinnerian theory (unlike social learning theory), neglects motivational and cognitive variables as contributors to human behaviour. Skinner Theory represent psychological perspectives that are quite different than those that preceded them, perspectives that are more mechanistic and more grounded in empirical methods of knowledge gathering.

  1. Evaluate the role that one cultural dimension (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may have on ...

    Hazan and Shaver (1978) supports this idea. It finds out that loving and stable relationship are associated with loving and affectionate parenting at young age while insecure lovers (who are more likely to divorce) often reported having cold and rejecting mothers. This shows that early attachment style can affect adulthood relationship, which is associated with divorce rates.

  2. Psychology biological level of analysis revision

    They concluded that acetylcholine played a role in creating a memory of the maze. A biological psychology principle states that animal research provides insight to human behaviour; animal research is relevant to human behaviour as supported by Darwin?s theory of evolution.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work