• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism and collectivism

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism and collectivism. Both dimensions are what divide cultures into two "sub categories". The term individualism refers to 'individualist societies', where bonds between individuals are loosely based. This means that every being are referred to as a 'true individual' where one is expected to look after him/herself and/or his/her own family. On the other hand the term collectivism refers to 'collectivist societies', where an individual is expected to conform immediately to society's rules and expectations from birth onwards, as well being integrated into strong cohesive in-groups. For example an extended family, such as uncles, aunts and grandparents to provide support and protection towards that individual. Nevertheless if an individual in a conformed collectivist society does not reach to its (society, family and large social groups) expectations, severe results can arise because of this. Although individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions are not commonly researched, a few studies had been carried out. ...read more.


This also happens with school students. The system does its best to bring up the underachievers, but at the same time, they discourage the exceptional students from being "too smart" or at least showing off about it. If you get to full of yourself, society has ways to bring you down a peg or two. In the States however, it is said that the squeaky wheel gets the grease. The society and history of the States was formed by people who stood out, who left the familiar, unwilling to merely endure, determined to change their lives ? to overcome. Standing out, individuality is still valued. In conclusion, the study implies that individualism is more of a western orientation, while eastern countries tend to lean more towards connectedness. Markus and Kitayama show the contrast of the two cultures demonstrating both individualism and collectivism, and how collectivism in culture leads more to conformity. The second study is the Heine & Lehman study. The aim was to see if there were any differences in self-serving and group-serving biases between Canadians and Japanese students. ...read more.


He then analyzed the content focusing on the key differences. His research looked at the forty most represented countries in the surveys. The trends he noticed he called ?dimensions?. Hofstede realized that it is important to understand the cultural differences between cultures. An example he gave was the difference between businesses in the Middle Eastern countries in comparison to Western countries. The intention of having a business meeting is to come to some form of agreement after the negotiations take place, in the western culture shaking hands is seen to be the beginning of a partnership, however shaking hands in Middle Eastern cultures symbolizes the beginning of the serious negotiations. The differences in cultures can led to misunderstandings and problems in the long term. However, one has to be careful with applying the idea of dimensions .It should not be assumed that two members from different cultures must be different or a singular member of a culture will always demonstrate dimensions with the norm of that culture. The concept simply allows psychologists to generalize in order to discuss the role culture plays in behaviour. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour.

    They were then told that they have to carry out a memory task where the actual participant was to teach the confederate a list of word pairs and administer him electric shocks increasing in voltage if they made a mistake.

  2. Examine the Concepts of Normality & Abnormality

    he attempted to draw a clean line between 'normal sadness' and 'abnormal depression', and then concluded that 'the DSM criteria used by researcher do not allow the distinction to be made'. By writing that "the DSM-III's de-contextualised symptom-based criteria for depressive disorder had...

  1. Factors Influencing Conformity

    These results support that pressure to conform does not arise from some general desire to be like everyone else but from a fear of being wrong about a clear, objective matter. The fact that conformity varied between the different tasks and increased as the task got harder shows that the difficulty of the task is a factor that affects conformity.

  2. Evaluate the role that one cultural dimension (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may have on ...

    However, this study is an experiment. It is artificial and has limited ecological validity. Furthermore, the participants are only from Korea and America. They may not be a good representation for collectivistic culture and individualist culture. It can be argued that the results have limited generalizability to other cultures.

  1. To what extent is positive education in classroom settings successful in enhancing students happiness?

    (Brunwasser & Gillham, 2008) evaluated whether PRP is effective in targeting depression symptoms in youth. This was done by a meta-analysis of 17 studies. They found that students who have been following the Penn Resiliency Program reported significant lower depression symptom in comparison to youths who haven?t experienced any intervention.

  2. Using empirical evidence examine the concepts of normality and abnormality

    When people violate such social rules, other people have a tendency to assume that there is something wrong with them. However, there are also many limitations regarding this definition of abnormality. First of all, social norms vary across cultures and social norms.

  1. Outline the principles of social cultural level of analysis and explain how they ...

    had good controls over the experiment and is very well standardized as there is an equal distribution of gender and could be generalized to other cultures. It had high ecological validity and could be very well replicated and applicable to the real world .The students were debriefed after the experiment

  2. Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour

    Chen et al 2005 is a notable one. In eastern countries, where long term orientation is prevalent, patience is valued more than in Western countries. Chen et al conducted an experimental study using 147 Singaporean ?bicultural participants? (exposed extensively to Singaporean and American culture) and assumes that both can affect behaviour depending on which is more active in the mind at a particular time.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work