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The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism and collectivism

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Introduction

´╗┐The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism and collectivism. Both dimensions are what divide cultures into two "sub categories". The term individualism refers to 'individualist societies', where bonds between individuals are loosely based. This means that every being are referred to as a 'true individual' where one is expected to look after him/herself and/or his/her own family. On the other hand the term collectivism refers to 'collectivist societies', where an individual is expected to conform immediately to society's rules and expectations from birth onwards, as well being integrated into strong cohesive in-groups. For example an extended family, such as uncles, aunts and grandparents to provide support and protection towards that individual. Nevertheless if an individual in a conformed collectivist society does not reach to its (society, family and large social groups) expectations, severe results can arise because of this. Although individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions are not commonly researched, a few studies had been carried out. ...read more.

Middle

This also happens with school students. The system does its best to bring up the underachievers, but at the same time, they discourage the exceptional students from being "too smart" or at least showing off about it. If you get to full of yourself, society has ways to bring you down a peg or two. In the States however, it is said that the squeaky wheel gets the grease. The society and history of the States was formed by people who stood out, who left the familiar, unwilling to merely endure, determined to change their lives ? to overcome. Standing out, individuality is still valued. In conclusion, the study implies that individualism is more of a western orientation, while eastern countries tend to lean more towards connectedness. Markus and Kitayama show the contrast of the two cultures demonstrating both individualism and collectivism, and how collectivism in culture leads more to conformity. The second study is the Heine & Lehman study. The aim was to see if there were any differences in self-serving and group-serving biases between Canadians and Japanese students. ...read more.

Conclusion

He then analyzed the content focusing on the key differences. His research looked at the forty most represented countries in the surveys. The trends he noticed he called ?dimensions?. Hofstede realized that it is important to understand the cultural differences between cultures. An example he gave was the difference between businesses in the Middle Eastern countries in comparison to Western countries. The intention of having a business meeting is to come to some form of agreement after the negotiations take place, in the western culture shaking hands is seen to be the beginning of a partnership, however shaking hands in Middle Eastern cultures symbolizes the beginning of the serious negotiations. The differences in cultures can led to misunderstandings and problems in the long term. However, one has to be careful with applying the idea of dimensions .It should not be assumed that two members from different cultures must be different or a singular member of a culture will always demonstrate dimensions with the norm of that culture. The concept simply allows psychologists to generalize in order to discuss the role culture plays in behaviour. ...read more.

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