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To what extent do biological and cognitive factors interact with emotion

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Introduction

´╗┐Despite the differences between biological and cognitive factors, there have been attempts to combine the two perspectives. One such attempt is the two-factor theory of emotion. The two-factor theory of emotion suggested that emotion arises body arousal and appraisal. Unfortunately, there is little evidence for this theory. There is, however, evidence for a more limited effect of arousal on appraisal. For example, Zillman and Bryant found that participants who had just exercised responded more aggressively to provocation than participants who had not. Another study by Dutton and Aaron showed that male participants were observed to be more attracted to female interviewers when approached on a narrow footbridge, a high anxiety situation. ...read more.

Middle

Based on the evidence, biological and cognitive factors can be assumed to interact with emotion. It can be assumed that cognitive factors mainly influence conscious emotions and moods, while biological factors seem to be the major influence on the primary emotional reaction to external stimuli. This does not mean that biological factors cannot affect appraisal, but can often affect emotion. Different emotions are experienced differently. However, researchers have found it difficult to detect clear psychological differences between them. Therefore, very similar patterns of autonomic arousal seem to influence emotions as distinct as fear, joy or anger. There are some physiological differences between emotions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lazarus has built on the work of Schachter and also proposed a theory that demonstrates the interaction of cognitions and biology in understanding emotions. Lazarus proposed a theory of emotion based on the notion of appraisal, which refers to the evaluation of situations according to the significance they have for us. We experience emotions when, in our interaction with our environment, we judge events as beneficial or harmful to our well-being. Initially, Lazarus identifies six appraisal components: primary appraisal (motivational relevance, motivational congruence and accountability) and secondary appraisal (problem-focusing coping, emotion-focused coping and future expectancy). 3. 4. The emotion experienced in a particular situation is determined by the pattern of answers individuals give to the questions relating to the six appraisal components. Lazarus uses core relational theme to refer to a summary of all the appraisal judgments that define specific emotions. ...read more.

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