• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent is psychodynamic effective in its application to everyday life?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent is psychodynamic effective in its application to everyday life? Psychodynamic is the systematized study and theory of human behaviour emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation. The original concept of psychodynamic is developed by Freud who believes that id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of psyche; the uncoordinated instinctual trends are the id, the organised realistic part of the psyche is the ego and the critical and moralising function the super-ego. Freud engaged in dream analysis and until his work on them, educated Europeans had thought of dreams as leftovers of the day prior to the dream and dreams were meaningless while other cultures interpreted dreams differently. In his book The Interpretation of Dream, Sigmund Freud suggests that the content of dreams is related to wish-fulfilment, i.e. the id manifests its desires through dreams. One of his the most famous case studies were on Ida Bauer - Dora. Dora was an upper-middle class 18 year girl and her family was composed of father, mother and brother. Father was a dominant figure and was adored by Dora; mother suffered from housewife psychosis (obsessed with order and cleanliness in the household) and brother was emotionally detached from his father. Dora was very intelligent and verbal so she took quickly to free association and seemed to understand Freud's ideas. ...read more.

Middle

Kanzer). The main scope was that the patient's symptoms didn't disappear during analysis; they occur only afterward and were postponed by transference. After Dora's case we have an impression that the duty of the woman is to embrace sexual submission. The analytical situation models this relationship of mastery and submission. What is transferred are not so much the sexual desires of the female patient onto the male analyst as the power-politics of the male analyst to control his female patient. Importance of the use of the dreams in therapy has been tested throughout the years by some empirical studies. Hobson's and Solms's first major empirical difference concerns the neurophysiologic origins of dreaming. According to Hobson, the lower levels of serotonin and nor epinephrine during REM, when combined with high levels of acetylcholine, make dreaming state very different from waking, providing it with several distinctive characteristics, such as bizarreness. They assume that the content of everyday dreams reflects the dreamer's waking states and concerns. Research findings have revealed that the occurrence of recurrent dreams, nightmares and unpleasant everyday dreams is related to one's psychological well-being. For instance, it has been found that understanding a disturbing persistent dream can reduce its occurrence and its associated distress (Webb & Fagan, 1993). In 2001 Hill did the empirical research that has shown that dreams' pleasant or unpleasant content has a vital function in gaining from dream interpretation. ...read more.

Conclusion

For many decades, The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child-an annual volume published originally by Yale University Press - has presented many such studies as well as theoretical essays by the world's foremost analytic clinicians. These writings have often been exceptional in their observations and insights but they do not equal experimental and controlled findings. The kind of clinicians who are attracted to such an in-depth, detailed, rich, complicated form of treatment are less likely to be interested and skilled in research. Second, the methods of psychoanalytic play therapy (e.g., interpretations, empathic listening) cannot be standardised the way that a behavioural intervention or cognitive-behavioural strategy can be. Third, many of the goals and experiences of psychoanalytic therapy - ego growth, self-awareness, and comfort within one's own skin - again are not that easy to define and assess quantitatively. Fourth, psychoanalytic therapy is as much art as science. On the surface, three child therapists can say and do everything identically and yet have very different effects on the child. In conclusion, psychoanalytically-informed play therapy can be a powerful form of treatment. But it can sometimes be lengthy, costly, hard, and painful for both children and their parents. For the child therapist, learning and mastering psychoanalytic play therapy can be demanding, both intellectually and emotionally. It requires conviction and personal involvement and yet it's very subjective and cannot be generalised. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Free essay

    How to handle emotions better. Understanding emotions helps to see the world form a ...

    (Developing Emotional Awareness, 2011). But if you cannot control emotions you loose control of yourself and it is more difficult to communicate with others. The power of developing emotional awareness helps to enjoy more fulfilling relationships.

  2. Where does Schizophrenia Lie in the Spectrum of Nature vs Nurture?

    born from a mother who has Rubella, birth complications such as malnutrition in the womb, death of a close family member, and maternal depression also increase the risk of the development of this disorder (The Causes of Schizophrenia). The environment contributes to schizophrenia in several other ways depending on the person.

  1. Case Study of a Feral Child - Genie Wiley

    Once exposed to language, the LAD allows children to learn the language at a remarkable pace. 16. Linguist Eric Lenneberg suggests that like many other human behaviours, the ability to learn a language is subject to what are known as critical periods.

  2. To what extent is positive education in classroom settings successful in enhancing students happiness?

    On the other hand it is important to remember that this study was only carried out on British people and some basic education was required. This means that the findings cannot be generalized to the greater population) nor to uneducated people.

  1. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis ...

    As Ishmael is propelled into formal operational thinking, he is no longer limited to the here and now. He can now entertain limitless possibilities on the direction of his life and what will become of him. Inhelder & Piaget (1955)

  2. Explain the relationship between culture and health

    scientific basis and was even disproved by Redford Williamson of Duke University who claimed it was only the hostile factors such as anger and hostility that could be linked to CHD and not the personality itself.

  1. To what extent do bystanders have a responsibility in the case of Marques Gaines?

    Relatives of Gaines complain that this was a homicide, not an accident. Close friends and relatives were shocked by the news, mentioning that he was always a positive and hard working person that never caused any trouble. After Marques Gaines separated his ways with his friends from a night of

  2. To What Extent Can Music Improve a Child's Intelligence?

    In recent years, researchers have suggested that music could even have a positive effect on our intelligence. ?The Mozart effect? is a phenomenon where listening to the works of the famous classical composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart would supposedly improve the listener?s intelligence afterwards.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work