• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain than no reasonable man could doubt it? (B.Russell).

Extracts from this document...


"Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain than no reasonable man could doubt it?" (B.Russell). Can anyone really define knowledge? For Plato knowledge had to be justified, true and believed. However, believing is not the same as knowing; believing is thinking something is true. Knowledge is obtained from different sources, varying from senses, introspection and logic; however all of these can be questioned and believed to be untrustworthy and doubtful. Is there any knowledge or source of knowledge completely reliable and true? To claim to know something is not a very clear statement as there are different types of knowledge. "I know how to swim", this statement is clearly the ability to do something. This type of knowledge can either be learnt or it can be gained known by instinct as can be seen with animals. Another way of knowing something is by acquaintance, "I know Acapulco", and this knowledge is obtained by being in this place and actually seeing it. ...read more.


Many conclusions were drawn out of this premise the problem is that is was never proved however when taken it to be true many other conclusions can be made and in this case this conclusions helped the fields of geometry and engineering. Sense-perception is an example of knowledge learnt through experience, common examples of this are: "I know my eyes are blue", "I know the floor is cold". The common idea is that humans have five senses, there are five different ways in which we perceive the world however there are more senses: sense of balance and temperature. We rely on senses to perceive the world but never taking into account its limitations. Sight and sound are both waves but we only have a range which we can see or hear, we see light between 4x1014 Hz and 9x1014 Hz, and sounds between 20 Hz and 20 000 Hz, however there are other frequencies which can be observed in the electromagnetic spectrum. ...read more.


It is clear memory plays a big role of our source for knowledge however it is not convincing as it has many faults which we may not be aware of. Intuition is probably the most disbelieving source of knowledge, it is way of supporting claims however many people recur to their intuition when there is no knowledge to support the belief. "My intuition says north is that way", this sort of statement is a guess. Any claim obtained by intuition is very weak and is most probably wrong. Knowledge which is said to be obtained by intuition is very uncertain as it is in most cases just a guess. All sources of knowledge are distrustful, all knowledge is obtained either through reason or experience but neither of them are really reliable. Even the sources we rely on the most, our senses, trick us and play games. If everything we believe can de doubted, do we really know anything? 997 Words 1 Worburton.N. Philosophy the Basics. Routledge 2000. p53. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Theory of Knowledge section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Theory of Knowledge essays

  1. Evidence. One of the main differences between I am certain and it is certain ...

    Take the periodic table. All elements have been placed in groups depending upon their chemical properties. However, recently, scientists discovered 'superatoms', which adopt the properties of other group metals when they are grouped together ['Clusters of Aluminium Atoms Found to have Properties of Other Elements Reveal a New form of Chemistry.'

  2. What are the differences between "I am certain" and "it is certain", and is ...

    Therefore, it is highly unlikely that he is affected by his passionate conviction. Also, from the statement we can expect that this economist has done some research on the data of unemployment and inflation rate, which can be justified by mathematical means.

  1. Theory of Knowledge Essay on Choices in the World ...

    We (subconsciously, more often than not) select, edit, and subtly modify the data that our senses feed us; we simply cannot deal with it all, not in detail, at least. Thus, perception is very much an active affair: we build our vision of the world. We spot relationships, pick out familiar features; associate the sweet scent of roses with the red flowers we see before us.

  2. Although complete dependence on intuition is not suggested, intuition is often surprisingly accurate. But ...

    Can intuitively appealing explanations be kept when paired with perception? For instance, when I see the sun rise and set every morning and evening, it creates an intuitive feeling that the sun will rise and set tomorrow too. This example suggests that it is not valid to discard my appealing intuitive instincts when intuition is combined with perception.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work