• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Show Me Some Stats

Extracts from this document...


Candice: Hello Joy, you look like you have spare time on your hands. Joy: I don't really but- Candice: No worries, I have for you a challenge. Joy: Go on. Candice: I have here five pairs of countries. In each pairing one country has twice the child mortality rate as the other. (Turn to audience) Mortality rate is the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area. Since it is a two-times difference, it is a much bigger difference than the uncertainty of the data. My question is simple: which country has the higher child mortality rate of the five pairs? Sri Lanka or Turkey Poland or South Korea Malaysia or Russia Pakistan or Vietnam Thailand or South-Africa Joy: But that is trivial! Let me see, well, it's obviously this one, and this one, and this one, I'll take a guess on this one, but I'm pretty sure it's this one for the last one. Here. Candice: That sure was brief, let me see if your answers look anything like this. Sri Lanka or Turkey� �Poland or South Korea Malaysia or Russia� �Pakistan or Vietnam Thailand or South-Africa� Candice: Wrong, wrong, wrong again, that one's right, and another wrong answer? What is this, multiple choice on the Chemistry HL test? And you are in IB? ...read more.


Candice: There are no commonly accepted definitions for data quality for official statistics. Statistics Canada has defined data quality in terms of "fitness for use". Six dimensions of quality have been identified within the concept of "fitness for use". The relevance of statistical information reflects the degree to which it meets the real needs of users. The accuracy of statistical information is the degree to which the information correctly describes the phenomena it was designed to measure. The timeliness of statistical information refers to the delay between the reference point (or the end of the reference period) to which the information pertains, and the date on which the information becomes available. The accessibility of statistical information refers to the ease with which it can be obtained by users. The interpretability of statistical information reflects the availability of the supplementary information necessary to interpret and use it appropriately. The coherence of statistical information reflects the degree to which it can be successfully brought together with other statistical information within a broad analytic framework and over time. Joy: Now that we have defined what good statistics are, we would like to address some misconceptions people have about statistics. Candice: Some people believe that statistics are just averages. I personally do not trust averages. Why? Because averages are like a person having his head in the fridge and his feet in the oven and saying that he feels comfortably warm. ...read more.


Joy: You know,just like how this cultural and era-specificity influences statistics, there is a general perception that statistical knowledge is all-too-frequently intentionally misused by finding ways to interpret only the data that are favorable to the presenter. A famous saying attributed to Benjamin Disraeli is, "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics." Candice: Harvard President Lawrence Lowell wrote in 1909 that statistics, "...like veal pies, are good if you know the person that made them, and are sure of the ingredients." Joy: If various studies appear to contradict one another, then the public may come to distrust such studies. For example, one study may suggest that a given diet or activity raises blood pressure, while another may suggest that it lowers blood pressure. The discrepancy can arise from subtle variations in experimental design, such as differences in the patient groups or research protocols, which are not easily understood by the non-expert. Candice: Media reports usually omit this vital contextual information entirely, because of its complexity. By choosing, rejecting, or modifying a certain sample, results can be manipulated, and reality is therefore distorted. Such manipulations need not be malicious or devious; they can arise from unintentional biases of the researcher. Joy: The graphs used to summarize data can also be misleading. Candice: Statisticians can be malicious like that. Joy: But we're not manipulative at all, lets go agonize more IB students by telling them they know less about the world than chimps. Candice: Agreed. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Theory of Knowledge section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Theory of Knowledge essays

  1. TOK presentation

    Therefore the consequence is much less than he had hoped, which is the first dead end in his life-playing the role of the final crash of the pattern, lucidly reflected in the words, "He had no idea where he was walking nor where he was heading?"29 Similarly in Sorrow of

  2. ToK presentation

    though they are not very popular, there must be some truth in them and perhaps the answer to the causes of Global warming. (change slide) The second theory we looked at was whether the sun is the cause of climate change.

  1. How Inner nature and survival of the fittest relate to the relationship of mind ...

    With a record of 41 wins and 0 losses that he now obtained, he decided to fight the then current world champion Victor Ortiz and attempt to regain the title of World Champion. Boxing is a sport unlike any other, the athletes train for months at a time just to

  2. Problems With Interpreting Meaning. What do the problems with interpreting meaning discussed by ...

    Additionally, since the natural sciences also involve technical and precise terminology, the definition theory is applicable to this area of knowledge as well. Van de Lagemaat's second theory, the denotation theory, assumes that meaningful words stand for something, while meaningless ones do not ( 1).

  1. Vemos las cosas tal y como son, o tal y como somos

    a trav�s de la realizaci�n de experimentos que, seg�n establece esta teor�a, deber�an llevar a los resultados que se esperan en esta, de forma que sea comprobada o refutada por dichos resultados.

  2. Which sources of knowledgebooks, web sites, the media, personal experience, authorities or some other ...

    had 24 pairs of chromosomes as a Texan biologist, Theophilus Painter, had miscounted them under a telescope. No one had bothered to recount the number and this simple mistake had spread this false knowledge mostly through books. Today we know that human beings in fact have 23 pairs of chromosomes and not 24.

  1. We want to investigate on whether the development of computer technology brings more positive ...

    The highest bidder would get all the information that we, as individuals, have provided them. This is why something has to be done in order to permanently protect the rights of the people. Governments should pass laws to restrict any passing of customer information to third parties, and most importantly,

  2. Defining and Analyzing Mixed Method Johnson and Christensen (2007) describe mixed research as the ...

    might be a need to alter their methodological approach to understand the realm of leadership. Furthermore, past research methods used in leadership studies were based upon the view point that there is a quantifiable link between leadership effectiveness and organizational earnings.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work