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Dubliners is a series of short stories written by James Joyce. Joyce wrote these stories so that the can represent the people of Dublin and their paralysis during different stages of life. According to Joyce, the first stage is childhood, the second stage

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Dubliners is a series of short stories written by James Joyce. Joyce wrote these stories so that the can represent the people of Dublin and their paralysis during different stages of life. According to Joyce, the first stage is childhood, the second stage is young adulthood, and the final stage is mature life. In the childhood stage, the first three stories are told by different characters who are attempting to escape from their situation, but in the end they become trapped and are unable to leave the life of Dublin. Joyce is able to enhance his theme of moral and spiritual paralysis by using; character development, symbolism, repetition and irony in his first three stories. To begin with there are many examples that illustrate how the characters in the stories change. For example, in "The Sisters," Joyce demonstrates how the narrator's character is very active in the beginning. For instance, when Old Cotter speaks poorly about Father Flynn, the boy is angry by this comment and calls Old Cotter a "tiresome, old red nosed imbecile!" (Joyce 3). The narrator's remark shows that he is still a child but at the same time this remark demonstrates that he respects Father Flynn. Unfortunately, towards the end the boy withdraws from the story, he now only listens to the comments from his mother and the sisters but he doesn't say anything. ...read more.


When it is time to meet, it is only the narrator and Mahony who are there, their friend Dillion never arrived (Joyce 14). This is ironic because Dillon always appears brave because he always wins during their 'Cowboy and Indian' games. Like the previous character Dillon is paralyzed, he is does not break his daily routine. Also, in "Araby" an example of irony is when the main character is at school and he can't wait to leave to go to the bazaar "he hoped I was not beginning to idle. I could not call my wandering thoughts together." (Joyce 23). The word 'idle' illustrates a form of childhood paralysis because the main character is trying to characterize himself as an adult, even though he is still in school. Thus, Joyce's use of irony demonstrates how each of the characters becomes paralyzed. Moreover, in "The Sisters" the repetition of "light and dark" are mentioned throughout the story. When the boy visits the priest the lighting of the room is "suffused with dusky golden light", the colors that he uses to describe the priest are all dark colors as well "his face was very truculent, grey and massive, with black cavernous nostrils" (Joyce 6). The description of the priest differs greatly because earlier in the story, when the boy finds out about the Father Flynn's death he chose to walk on the "sunny side of the street " he felt "freed from death" (Joyce 4). ...read more.


As a result, the ships serve a symbol for freedom and adventure. Unfortunately, the images of freedom and escape are gone when an old man appears. The old man turns out to be a pervert who constantly repeats words. Due to this, the narrator becomes trapped, all he does is stare at the ground while to old man continues to talk. Thus, the boy become paralyzed, his plan in ditching school and going on an adventure is stopped because on an encounter. Likewise, an example of symbolism in "Araby" is when the narrator describes his street as 'blind', this illustrates that the street was closed at the end of one side; due to this interactions with people that did not live in that street did not occur. Thus, people trapped in the city unable to go anywhere, and this is what the narrator wants to get away from. Another example is the 'apple tree' which is very symbolic because it illustrates the narrator's hope for love. But, since the tree is located in the 'wild garden' this signifies that the tree may not grow properly (Joyce 21). Since the 'apple tree' is not in a proper environment this implies that trying new experiences was not supported by the people of Dublin. As a result the use of these literary tools gives a deeper understanding of the first three characters and the paralysis that the people of Ireland experience. Joyce, James. Dubliners. Boston: Saint Martin's Griffin, 1995. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Lory Leon Dubliners ...read more.

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