• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21

External Envelope

Extracts from this document...


EXTERNAL ENVELOPE CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 3 2.0 FA�ADE DESIGN 4 3.0 HEAT TRANSFER 5 3.1 Conduction 5 3.2 Convection 5 3.3 Radiation 6 4.0 BUILDING REGULATIONS 6-7 5.0 STRUCTURES 8 5.1 Steel 8 5.2 Concrete 8-9 5.3 Glass 10 6.0 FA�ADE FORMS, MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION 11 6.1 Heavyweight 11 6.1.1 Masonry - Stone 11-12 6.1.2 Masonry - Brick 13 6.2 Lightweight 14 6.2.1 Metal Panels 14-15 6.2.2 Plastics 16 6.2.3 Timber 16-17 6.2.4 Fabric 17 6.2.5 Curtain Wall 18-19 7.0 CONCLUSION 20 8.0 REFERENCES 21 1.0 INTRODUCTION An external envelope (also know as: fa�ade, skin), is constructed for enclosure of a building to protect the occupants, storage items & the interior of the building from outside intrusion (for security), external weather elements (wind, snow, rain etc), whilst producing a comfort factor relevant for the end user/s by ensuring the correct materials & methods are used whilst cohering with the relevant Building Regulations and British Design Standards. 2.0 FA�ADE DESIGN The fa�ade of a building needs to be designed at the very early stages of the construction process. This ensures that a detailed analysis of the energy input/output, and it's structural integrity and durability is concluded. If this procedure is not adhered to, complications may occur in the later stages of the construction process due to restrictions on planning applications and the overall design of the building. 'The functional requirements of a fa�ade are: * Strength & Stability * Resistance to weather * Durability and freedom from maintenance * Fire safety * Resistance to ...read more.


Glass retains a lot of heat giving it a high u-value. So the thicker it is, the more heat it retains and expands so enough expansion room is needed. If thick, glass retains a lot of heat which makes it expand, it will need enough expansion room. 6.0 FA�ADE FORMS, MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION When designing the external envelope, post installation movements need to be taken into consideration. This can be caused by thermal movement, settlement of foundations, elastic shortening of columns, edgebeam and sway deflections 6.1 Heavyweight 6.1.1 MASONRY - Stone Natural Stone Cladding Stone facades can be made in-situ or in factories and made into pre-cast panels. Stone blocks are either ashlar or rubble masonry. Both can be laid in either coursed or uncoursed height. To hold it in place, a lime mixture, cement or mortar can be used. Veneered stone is glued against concrete blocks to form stone cladding. Slipform is short forms (around 2 feet tall) are placed either side of the wall to form a guide for the wall, stones are placed inside of the forms and concrete poured to hold them together. Mechanical fastening against the steel frame holds the stonework in place. Design and installation is covered under BS 8298. The thickness is typically 75mm with new standards bringing it down to about 40-50mm thick. This is dependant on the type of stone, structural calculations and performance testing. ...read more.


Is a fully framed member and whole framing is predominately constructed in-situ. The frame supported to main slab with the expansion joints in mullions. Stick systems are usually found constructed for shopping malls. Unitised Very expensive system. It is of floor to ceiling height with sealant, is very good quality, very durable and an has excellent performance. If used, this system is very rapid so saves a lot of time but is extremely heavy. Panellised Like unitised, is about 6-8m wide. Panels are very expensive and large so need fewer. This system can cover two floors as a time and is very heavy so a good crane needs to be used in line with the correct method statement. This system is generally not used. Spandrel Ribbon Spandrel is the opaque part of the fa�ade and is made of ribbon panels with a silicone sealant to allow for expansion. This system is not as common now as it was in the 1980's. Structural Bolted Glass The glass is either bolted to a supporting frame or a number of pieces of glass are bolted together to form a structural glass assembly. 7.0 CONCLUSION Designing and installing a fa�ade isn't just a simple task. It is the skin of the building that protects the end user from the outside elements. There are many, many various systems and materials that can be used and is dependant on the location of the building and the atmospheric conditions to how the material will deteriorate. You need to take into account how the size and load of the building and exactly what building is used for. 8. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Architecture section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Architecture essays

  1. Tehran is the capital and largest city of Iran and is also the most ...

    However, they are clearly marked and signposted in English. With an area of some 410 hectares Saad Abad reaches Velenjak in the north, Tajrish square in the south, Darband region in the east, and the skirts of Kolak Chal heights in the west. During the Qajar era, Saad Abad was composed of seven districts.

  2. The History of Concrete

    said to be intermediate between sulphate resistant cement and ordinary Portland cement. Low heat Portland-blastfurnace cement: this cement has a reduced rate of hydration and heat evolution which is achieved by modifying the mineral comosition and adding slag similar in composition to that in Portland -blastfurnace cement.

  1. Condensation in dwellings. In my essay I will be exploring the common problem of ...

    and the removal of open fire places with the introduction of central heating. *** Houses have become more effectively sealed, keeping any moisture produced within the house and providing better conditions for condensation to occur. Ventilation is only effective if consistent throughout the whole envelope of the house.

  2. Renewable Energy in Practice. The Energy Statement for Ashton Green Sustainable Urban Extension ...

    that all tenants would benefit from reduced bills, helping reduce the fuel poverty. The PV was specifically designed to maximise the roof space and to make sure that it meets the CODE criteria. In addition to the PV systems there was a centralised bio-mass boiler installed.

  1. Building Technology - selecting materials for floors and walls

    Suspended ceilings will tend to show discoloration and stains and sag after a few years of use. Regular maintenance is required to maximise the life span of this type of ceiling which is often costly. The ceilings are not as rigid and sturdy as the typical plastered ceiling and can allow installed fixtures to fall on people beneath them.

  2. Principles of buildability and sustainable construction

    ________________ Before the colonial period in Sri Lanka we had very sustainable construction methods. Those days there was a cultivation based society and society was entirely depend on the environment. Materials used for construction purposes were entirely natural. They used sundried bricks, wattle and daub walls for buildings and other structures.

  1. How could materials, renewable technologies and adapted processes be used in future sustainable housing?

    However, the system in use may not necessarily be what is at fault, because for example, 44% of those surveyed, found the temperature in wind to be just right. The survey is subjective, different people would have different temperatures at which they feel comfortable.

  2. Research into Function and Design of Theatres.

    This era can be characterized by rampant commercialism in films. The 1970s and 1980s were considered turbulent years for the Philippine film industry, bringing both positive and negative changes. The films in this period dealt with more serious topics following the Martial law era.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work