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University Degree: Planning

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  1. Impact of Technology in Construction

    Designs can be changed on the day instead of re-drafting which could take days. Time and costs were rapidly reduced with newly skilled CAD users being in demand creating highly skilled job roles. Architects, Designers and Engineers are now able to produce extremely accurate, quality drawings with minimal fuss. With this advancement in Technology, this has enabled the accurate design and production of pre-fabricated materials and components of a building, including: * Pre-cast drainage components * Pre-cast service bridge * Pre-cast stairs * Pre-fabricated kitchens * Pre-fabricated bathroom * Pre-cast walls/external envelope (aka "flat packs) * Modular Units (aka "pods")

    • Word count: 1745
  2. Disability and the Built Environment- How Leeds City centre caters for disabled workers and shoppers.

    for disabled staff and Phase 3 which was passed in 2004, this requires businesses and shops to make physical adjustments to the buildings so as to remove any potential barriers for access to disabled people, and wheelchair bound individuals. These policies were set up to ensure that everyone is treated fairly and to help both disabled workers and shoppers so that they are not discriminated against for some reason. These policies are integrated into businesses as either the Governments policy on the matter or the business constructs its own policy to show that they take the matter very seriously.

    • Word count: 1896
  3. Why is public participation so important in land use planning?

    represent non-participation, their real objective is not to enable participation but to "educate" or manufacture consent. The next three rungs are tokenism (Informing, Consultation and Placation) and this allows citizens to voice opinions, but they lack the power to have their voices observed or respected by the power holders. The last three rungs are degrees of citizen power - Partnership enables them to negotiate and engage in tradeoffs with power holders, Delegated power and Citizen Control allows citizens to obtain majority or total managerial power.

    • Word count: 1442
  4. Set out the way in which the Industrial Revolution impacted on urban form and development

    There were fluctuations in employment to concentrated workers without anybody or anything to fall back on in distress. This insecurity added to the existing problem of chronically depressed and the abandoned urban poor. The poverty this caused among sections of the working class was felt most in the slums of urban areas, with filthy living conditions, overflowing drains and cesspools, contaminated water supplies, rampant spread of disease and increased death rates for the people living there. Also connected to all these was the increasing segregation of society in urban areas into different districts, streets and suburbs according to different status and income, different classes lived in isolation from one another.

    • Word count: 1726
  5. The nature of Property Market & Roles of A Valuer. The traditional methods used in valuations are called the five methods. Factors affecting Property Values

    The traditional methods used in valuations are called the five methods. These are: * The Investment (Income) method; * The Comparison method; * The Contractor's (Cost) method (a cost-based method); * The Profits (Accounts) method; * The Residual (Development) method. The Residual method is used in development situations but may also rely heavily on the other methods. It may use the investment methods, for instance, to determine the gross development value of the proposed development, or it may use the comparative method to compare capital values or site values calculated with examples from the market.

    • Word count: 1905
  6. Free essay

    Global Positioning Systems and their use in General Surveying

    The time difference is measured using the following equation; Range to Satellite (Distance) = Signal travel time (DT) x Speed of Light (Velocity) This range is called a pseudo-range. Each satellites unique signal allows the pseudo-ranges to several satellites to be measured at the same time. The pseudo-ranges to at least four satellites are measured to give the position of the receiver, be it ground or handheld, in the following manner by using "Trilateration"; The first pseudo-range gives the position on the surface of a sphere; Figure i Figure ii The second reduces this to a circle; The third gives the position to two points; Figure iii And the fourth confirms the actual

    • Word count: 1371
  7. Evaluation of Selected Materials for a Construction Project

    These use the same combination of materials stated previously in the form of steel, timber, concrete and polystyrene. Structural Insulated Panels proved to be of some interest utilising timber and polystyrene. Upon considering the upper storeys the refurbishment of the previous school would include simple block internal walls and partition walls in the office spaces. Comparison of Materials; By comparing each of the materials stated above in the simple table below, the strengths and weaknesses can be ascertained and an informed decision reached as to which materials will be utilised in this construction project for each element.

    • Word count: 1914
  8. Kyoto and Fuel Poverty

    Agenda 21 called on all nations to: * Cut down their use of energy and raw materials. * Reduce pollution and waste. * Protect the fragile natural habitats of animals and plants. * Share wealth and opportunities more fairly between the developed and the developing world. By 1997, not much progress had been made on the Rio conference objectives. Also in 1997, the Climate Treaty Conference was held in Kyoto, Japan. More than 150 Nations attended the Summit and agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to below 1990 levels by the year 2012. The Kyoto Protocol was the first ever International Treaty to set legally binding emissions reduction targets on developed countries that have ratified it.

    • Word count: 1713
  9. GMU Parking

    (Nelson, 2007, p. 236). There is no doubt that the 30,000 plus students enrolled contribute to this statistic. Close to 5,000 of these enrolled students live on campus. Out of the 25,000 left a small number carpool, or take public transportation. The state and counties provides access though public transportation such as the Metro Bus, the Cue Bus, ART Bus and the PRTC Bus. Mason is even accessible through different bike paths. Even with these factors taken into account, a large portion of students are still commuting into school every day. "86% of college students say owning a car is crucial.

    • Word count: 1921
  10. Free essay

    London 2012 Olympic Transport Strategy

    As this report is restricted to a maximum of 1000 words I will be limited in my expansion of some topics, however I will aim to discuss all the issues relevant to this topic. The Olympic Games is the largest sporting event to date and has provided a global platform for its hosts since the first modern games took place in Athens in 1896 although very small in comparison to the games as we know it today. The Seoul Games of 1988 reminded people of how the Olympics could be used as a vehicle for urban change, improving traffic management and environmental beautification.

    • Word count: 1374
  11. Risk Management

    * Based on previous experienced of the project manager, it is notable that mortar is a hazardous agent to our skin. * Thus, project manager will need to identified the likelihood of the risk occur and also the impact of potential risk. A qualitative risk analysis is used to evaluate the risk. Probability of occurrence High Low Impact High 1 3 Low 2 4 The risk is categorized in Grade 2 where the probability of occurrence is high but the impact is low.

    • Word count: 1495
  12. Case Study of the Local Public Inquiry (Planning) Process

    Before the Secretary of State decides the planning application a public inquiry is almost always held. Planning applications are normally called in where there are considered to be significant planning issues. For example, if the development conflicts with national planning policy, has wide scale effects or if it invokes regional or national controversy. In this instance, an issue which may lead to a public enquiry is the location for which the development is planned. One factor is the distance from the town center; Planning Policy Statement 6 outlines the Government's national policy of applying the sequential approach to site selection.

    • Word count: 1437
  13. selection of interal maetrial

    Good Acoustics is a must as to prevent sound travelling from outside and inside the classroom. Classroom Orientation As today's classroom and lecture rooms are made to seat a limited number of students but are always over stretched it is hard to see and hear the teacher giving the lesson. To minimize this I will have the table and chairs facing the north so that the natural light can come through the west and south walls. The classroom will also have a large interactive board which is much better then the traditional white boards as the teacher can use it to write on any where within the classroom.

    • Word count: 1958
  14. Building services - HK

    Plumbing System 2.1 System installed in my home/ domestic building 2.1.1 Cold Water Supply System Indirect water supply system is the type of water distribution system using in my domestic building. The roof water tank is installed to provide an adequate storage in the event of failure of government main. The indirect water supply system requires more pipework than the direct water supply system and therefore more expensive to install. The water supply pressure, however, is uniform and distribute to all floors.

    • Word count: 1293
  15. development control

    environment - to minimize traffic congestion - to protect developments from natural hazards Due to the limited scope of this essay, I will only focus on the first 3 issues in detail. Development to control to limit the outbreak of disease and to promote good health Development control has a short, but interesting history. Health and safety have always been the first justifications of land use planning. During the industrialization era in Britain, health issues dominated institutional concerns about cities as it had an impact on productivity, civil stability and national security (In 1910 in Manchester of the 11000 people that volunteered to join the army only 9% were considered to be fit enough)

    • Word count: 1574
  16. Feasibility Study

    There are few shops in the village and the local school has recently closed due lack of pupils attending. The village also has the River Stour running through and parts of the village are on a flood plain as well as a flood way. Hothfield has very few facilities in the village, most of which are located in Ashford. There is also no train station in the village and also a very irregular bus service with poor standard bus stops. Proposed Site The proposed development site is located at Home Farm, set around 250m from the centre of Hothfield.

    • Word count: 1831
  17. Dartford History

    The existing buildings can give us a good idea of what the town may have looked like in the 1800s, and even earlier. Also it can tell us what the High Street was used for, as most of the remaining buildings are still used for the same purpose as in the 19th century. Also the buildings show us links between Dartford's previous uses and its current uses. For example, the Bull &Victoria hotel would've been used as a coaching inn; we know this because the entrance was big enough for a coach to stop in.

    • Word count: 1874
  18. intro to setlement course work

    Years later, in 1545 Henry VIII watched his fleet set sail from Portsmouth only to witness the sinking of the 'Mary Rose' which capsized due her guns not being secured correctly and the ship being overloaded with soldiers. In 1982 the wreck of this ship was reclaimed from the sea and is housed in the Historic Dockyard in Portsmouth. A Town Hall was opened on 9th August 1890 by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The prince said, "You have every reason to feel proud of this fine building, worthy of the largest naval port in the United Kingdom, and of the architectural beauties which it displays."

    • Word count: 1315
  19. With reference to a named city, explain what is meant is by 'urban re-imaging'?

    The 2004 Index of Deprivation indicated Manchester as Third, estimating 234,000 residents within the city living in 10% of the most deprived area in England. Such types of severe deprivation can lead to enormous challenges such as, high levels of crime, high levels of unemployed, poor skill levels, continuing poor educational achievement for children at school, Poor health and housing that is in constant poor condition. However, Manchester seeks to reframe this situation and has been doing so since the 1950's.

    • Word count: 1171
  20. How can academic work on cities and identity help us compare the portrayal of an aspect of urban life in the following films: Boys 'n the hood and Minority Report.

    With the film Boys 'n the Hood, the major changes that had happened in the last quarter of the century was black people getting equal rights, but although still not totally accepted within society in some areas and being poor, education was not the priority of some people. As the next generation grew up they had the previous generation as their role models, jobs were scarce and some people started dealing drugs in order to support their families; and with drugs, crime goes hand in hand.

    • Word count: 1105
  21. the role of a regional centre. Australian towns.

    The movement by larger companies attracted an agglomeration of smaller companies that are linked by services and industry. Bathurst was chosen for its stable work force, good transport links, support services and the financial incentives offered by the Bathurst-Orange Development Corporation. An example is the abattoir industry which would then attract side industries that would feed off it, such as food processing and frozen meats companies. This in turn boosts the whole economy of the regional city, as the industries attract a larger labour force which then makes it viable for the city to expand even further. Another example of decentralisation is Buckman Laboratories, a chemical manufacturer, which moved from Sydney to Wagga Wagga.

    • Word count: 1306
  22. When I had all my results recorded I had to design graphs to make my results easy to explain.

    For instance the main advantage I can think off for people coming from Southern Ireland into the North is the value of their currency. Even though euro is a very weak currency compared to the sterling pound it is still a lot cheaper for people from the South to shop in the North. Also some of the towns are served better by the public transport therefore the towns served better by public transport will have more people coming into the town.

    • Word count: 1686
  23. Aim: to examine the process of gentrification and discover how this form of urban change affects all of urban society.

    It is an extremely visible process where the new people change the character of the existing community. There are many contributing factors that affect whether gentrification occurs in a specific location though it is very difficult to predict whether or when change will occur. On the supply side you need areas that are ripe for redevelopment in either having a large stock of dilapidated often architecturally interesting buildings or 'brown-field' sites of post-industrial land. The ability to make a capital profit seems to be a key factor. The factors affecting the demand side, the pool of those able to gentrify, are wide ranging and highly complex and not all are involved in a specific location.

    • Word count: 1652
  24. "Cronica de una muerte anunciada", Gabriel Garcia Marquez. "The town itself is the protagonist of the novel. The novel's chief interest lies in its exploration of the town's collective psyche or communal values". Develop and Discuss.

    However, the ways and customs of the country at that time mean that the majority of those who believe the Vicario brothers also believe that they are doing the right thing in restoring Angela's honour and do nothing to prevent the tragedy. Those who are told and do try to prevent the incident are unsuccessful, as a series of unforeseeable events gets in their way. It was "una muerte anunciada", a death foretold. Although the basic outline of the plot is essentially an account of all the events leading up to the death of Santiago Nasar, the chief interest is undoubtedly the town as a collective.

    • Word count: 1477
  25. Discuss What Relationship Bret Harte Elaborates Between Frontier Experience and the Formation of Society.

    Harte decided that the best way to overcome this problem was to import romantic situations and plot structures in an unmapped and unknown landscape. Hid Californian mythology was founded on ideas taken from the Bible, from Greek legend, Washington Irving, Walter Scott and Dickens. Harte's sentiment is obvious, yet restrained and his pathos is not paraded and insisted upon as Dickens's was. However, even though there is a variety of incident and going on in his stories, there is still a controlling unity of theme and tone.

    • Word count: 1700

"Places draw us to them for reasons beyond the feelings derived from the five senses..."

-Alison and Peter Smithson

If you spend your free time comparing and contrasting the best parks, cathedrals, and train systems from around the world, then you might want to consider a university degree in architecture, building or planning. Students of these subjects study the built environment, and get the chance to leave their mark on the world in a very concrete fashion.

Although these subjects involve visual skills like drawing and model-building, they also require a fair ream of writing. So when you set down your pencil and ruler at the end of a day and find yourself faced with a blank text document, visit Marked by Teachers' collection of architecture, building and planning essays. Our teacher-marked essays will nurture your writing skills until you're able to write confidently on any topic that's called for.

Students of architecture, building and planning often go on to further training and careers within their fields of study; they can also switch to degreesand careers in related subjects, including engineering, art history or tourism, transport, and travel.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent does our understanding of space depend on the way we think of time?

    "`Conclusion The issues of time and space are, therefore, of great relevance, on a philosophical, as well as an mundane level. Fundamentally, time never stands still, and so our understanding of space will always be affected by the passage of time, to a certain extent. The degree to which the concept of space is dependent on time on a conscious level is, however, culturally-defined. An urban community, for instance, will probably have a far more commercial view of space than a Sioux Indian, whose appreciation of space is likely to be on a more aesthetic and philosophical level. `Overall, the changing values which we have assigned to time and space over the past century have led to destructionism. Instanteneity triumphs in the post-modern world, leaving people feeling detached from their sense of place. The future has become part of the present, as people attempt to guard against future shocks, via insurance. These combined problems have, in my opinion, led to the recent resurgence in the popularity of traditional values which has occurred in many industrialist countries, notably the USA and the UK. This represents an attempt to find stability once more in our ephemeral world. Nostalgia is effectively used to guard against time- space compression, which has already led to a reappraisal of our perceptions of time and space. `"

  • How can academic work on cities and identity help us compare the portrayal of an aspect of urban life in the following films: Boys 'n the hood and Minority Report.

    "So in conclusion the academic work that we have studied can help us understand the portrayal of the different aspects of urban life within cities. All aspects are can be tied together for instance crime and surveillance, work and family and so on. People tend to take films or any other sort of media interaction at face value and not truly understanding what the director wants to say within his film. Different people will view the same two films I watched differently and may disagree with what Soja may have said, but at least with the academic knowledge we posses now, we can take it all in and at least try to look at it from a different angle."

  • Discuss how the social geography of race and ethnicity is shaped by racism and exclusion.

    "In conclusion the different races and ethnicities of 'modern world' cities have been forced to clump together in groups of the same ethnicity/race. This has lead to a patterning urban environments and the 'Ghettoisation' of city suburbs. This is seen as a potential problem by governments, and the underlying problem of cultural sensitivity and equality, when planning socially to prevent social exclusion, has been attempted to be addressed by city planners. The planners however have come across a few barriers when trying to mix residential areas, such as communication with different ethnic minorities. Planners have in some cases found that people lack mutual communication and people tend to just talk past each other."

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