• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Sports participation is directly affected by social exclusion. Drawing on the literature from the sociology of sport discuss the statement in relation to TWO of the following; gender, disability, sexuality, race and class.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

'Sports participation is directly affected by social exclusion'. Drawing on the literature from the sociology of sport discuss the statement in relation to TWO of the following; gender, disability, sexuality, race and class. Introduction 'Social exclusion is a process and is described much more widely in terms of access, or lack of it to different basic social systems' (Houlihan, 2008, p.78). The term social exclusion was first used by a French welfare minister in 1974 and soon became a high priority and a cross cutting theme of the New Labour government in 1997 (Houlihan, 2008). In 1998 a new social exclusion unit formed and described social exclusion occurring when people suffer from a series of problems such as unemployment, discrimination, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime, ill health and family breakdown (Hylton and Bramham, 2007). These sorts of problems consequently lead individuals or groups of people to become cut off from the mainstream society which will ultimately have a decisive impact on their overall quality of life (Macionis and Plummer, 2005). Social exclusion can happen in many different institutions, one of which is sport. There are many dimensions in sport which exclusion can be expressed such as sexuality, gender, age, ethnicity, disability or location (Collins and Kay, 2003). In a study by Collins (2004) he identifies several of these factors and looks at how exclusion occurs. One important result which was drawn upon from the study was the drop in participation rate between the ages of 16 and 25. ...read more.

Middle

Those in power therefore take the full benefits of sport. Sport is run by wealthy owners and large corporations who have capitalist values and have a lifestyle based on competition and production. When people accept capitalist values without any question sport becomes a source of false and unrealistic sense of social life (Nixon, 2008). Research has been conducted on conflict theory. Rinehart and Grenfell (2002) study looks at how a simple grass root scheme of a BMX park in a socially deprived area is placed there with the intentions of gaining profit and making money for the wealthy. Looking back at past research, conflict theory was used in Flint and Eitzen's (1987) study on professional sports team ownership and entrepreneurial capitalism. From their research they came up with three arguments. Firstly sports team owners do not maintain the social and corporate linkages found among capitalists in other industries. Secondly, these owners participate in the sports industry because it is both profitable and secure. Finally, the workings of a self- regulating monopoly and the popularity of sport enhance the reproduction of capitalist social relations and ideology (Flint and Eitzen, 1987). Both these pieces of research suggest that conflict theory is correct and sport involves financial and economic gain for the wealthy while the lower classes are exploited. However some sociologists would argue that conflict theory ignores that it may be possible for sports to have a positive on individuals and groups. ...read more.

Conclusion

Nevertheless there is still issues in both topics which still need addressing, predominately the access lower classes have to upper class sports and the lack of media attention that the women face. However it is important that it is not assumed that these two groups are the only groups affected by social exclusion. In many of the studies class and gender were related to race, whilst we must not forget that the disabled and older ages are less likely to take part in sport. Not only is this the case in sport but all different groups of people need to be accounted for in sociology if wider patterns are going to be found in institutions such as education and health. (Nixon, 2008). It is clear there is a growing amount of data gathering on social exclusion, however it is important that we don't assume that all data is legitimate and correct. Questions in sociology are always asked on the study technique of the researcher. There may be problems with the methodology or the interpretation of the data. For example a researcher who is interviewing an individual or group may cause them to act differently and cause interviewer bias, where an observation made by one person may be interoperated differently to another person. All in all, generally research is a good indication of the real social world and it is nearly impossible for research not to have faults (Z. Greaves, S. Kirkby and C.Reid, 2006). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Sports Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Sports Science essays

  1. Technical Analysis of elite male soccer players by position and success

    From studying 1126 goalkeeper distributions at Euro 2000 with a hand notation system, it was concluded that successful goalkeepers used an equal distribution of kicks and throws, with variety which enabled possession to be maintained in the attacking third of the field.

  2. In this assignment I'm employed as an assistant to a Sports Development officer within ...

    Comparing this, to the success of disabled people will make the disabled successes seem really small, but we have to take in count, that they are not as many disabled people in the communities as children, they are not as many disabled people who will be motivated enough to go to a gym and work out, etc.

  1. Trace the development of one major sport for people with a physical disability from ...

    Wheelchair Rugby, or Quad Rugby as it is known in America, is a good example of how sport can be adapted to fit the needs of those with disabilities. Wheelchair Rugby originated in Winnipeg, Canada, in the mid 1970's. Its inventors were three students studying at the University of Manitoba who had become quadriplegics as a result of spinal injuries.

  2. is sportsmanship possible in professional sports? In this essay I will be looking at ...

    This according to Rosen (2007) is achieved by people been taught the right morals through sport which can then be passed into society. This view is shared by functionalist sociologists who believe that sport can act as a moral good and teach us manners.

  1. The study that is going to be conducted will investigate the difference physical activity ...

    if this could possibly be one of the things effecting PAPL, as the lack of physical activity is alarming and all possibilities should be investigated (Drane et al, 2001). With obesity levels at their highest there is no better time to act then now (gerver et al, 2003)

  2. A Critical evaluation of how my learning experiences from the module; Participation and Challenge ...

    Evidence suggests that disabled people are less likely to want to participate in sport due to having an impairment which they consider to be a barrier to their engagement. Modified games (See RP 2, Pg 5,8,9 & RP 4, Pg 14,15)

  1. Critically Assess the Value of Comparative Policy Analysis in the Context of Sport

    Agenda can be further understood as the translation of issues into a plan which can resolve them (Cobb, Ross, and Ross, 1976). Despite the Australian Sports Council (ASC) identifying objectives to develop both elite level sport and mass participation, it would appear that Australia have created an environment which prioritises the development of elite athletes (Green and Collins, 2008).

  2. Cold Tolerance, Acclimation and Acclimatization and Relevance in Sport

    where when voluntary movement does not produce enough heat, the body will begin to systemically contract and relax in an involuntary manner, causing us to shiver. Shivering will typically start in the muscles of the torso and eventually move to the limbs if more heat is generated in attempt to offset heat loss (Bell et al,.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work