: A quantitative study employed to find out whether interactive learining can enchance our memory recall process?
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DZX222 EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT TITLE: A quantitative study employed to find out whether interactive learining can enchance our memory recall process? ABSTRACT Open Universitystudents conducted a qualitative study as part of a psychology course requirement. A between-participants design was employed in order to explore the issue proposed by Craik and Lockhart, the levels of processing theory, which states that the retention of information in memory depends on how deeply it is processed when encoded. 60 participants individually carried out three conditions. The independent variable was ?the condition that the participant took part in`. The dependent variable was ?the score measured for the amount of correct placement of country names`. INTRODUCTION This qualitative study was employed to find out whether interactive learning can enchance our memory recall process. Previous studies proposed by Craik and Lockhart1, the levels of processing theory proposed that deeper processing leads to more permanent memory, Several studies have been conducted on methods to force deeper processing of new information and in the area of reading, it has been shown that teaching words in the context of paragraphs rather than in isolation leads to greater retention and increased fluency in the language. The levels of processing framework was presented 2 as an alternative to theories of memory that postulated separate stages for sensory, working and long-term memory. According to the levels of processing framework, stimulus information is processed at multiple levels simultaneously depending upon its characteristics. Furthermore, the "deeper"the processing, the more that will be remembered. For example, information that involves strong visual images or many associations with existing knowledge will be processed at a deeper level. The major proposition is that learners utilize different levels of elaboration as they process information.
In other words participants doing conditions 2 and 3 would score more than participants doing condition 1. The results were based on the Independent Variable which was manipulated by the three conditions. The dependent Variable was the score measured for the amount of correct placements of country names. The results of the experiment are shown in Table1 below. Descriptives N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum Maximum Lower Bound Upper Bound 1,00 20 12,15 3,117 ,697 10,69 13,61 6 19 2,00 20 11,15 5,641 1,261 8,51 13,79 0 21 3,00 20 14,75 4,166 ,932 12,80 16,70 9 21 Total 60 12,68 4,616 ,596 11,49 13,88 0 21 Table1 The results in this table show the mean scores for each condition. The results were also analysed using ANOVA. Those results are shown in Table 2 below. ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 138,133 2 69,067 3,519 ,036 Within Groups 1118,850 57 19,629 Total 1256,983 59 Table2 ANOVA shows that the f ratio = F(2.57)=3.519, p=0.036. The effect size n2 = 138,133 equals 0.110. According to these 1256.983 results p value is less than 0.05, so the results are statistically significant. Based on these results it is possible to accept the experimental hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis. DISCUSSION As we have predicted, the results of this experiment showed that participants who did condition3 had actually got the highest mean score. In our predicitions we were hoping that our condition2, where participants were asked questions about the map they were studying would also produce the highest scores as those participants should have remeberd more according to the theories put forward by Craik and Lockhart.
Do you understand what you have to do? Condition 3: In a moment I will place jigsaw pieces of Africa in front of you and a map of Africa I would like you to put the jigsaw pieces together by looking at the map. You will be given 5 minutes to do this task. You will then be required to perform a simple task based on what you have learnt from the map. You will be given 2 and a half minutes to do this task. Do you understand what you have to do? Debriefing: The memory experiment you have just undertaken is part of my on-line project I am conducting with the Open University. In my project I am studying how well information is processed and whether doing different tasks shows that there are different levels of processing information. Also no judgements will be made based on your performance, all results will be anonymous and will not be able to be traced back to you and if now after doing the task you want to withdraw, I will destroy your results. Thank you very much for your co-operation. APPENDIX 6 QUESTIONS FOR CONDITION2 (1) What is the capital of South Africa? JOHANNESBURG (2) Which is the biggest country in Africa? SUDAN (3) What is the capital of Zimbabwe? HARARE (4) Which country is bordered by Libya, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Sudan? CHAD (5) What is the capital of Egypt? CAIRO (6) Which is the smallest country? SWAZILAND (7) What is the capital of Ethiopia? ADDIS ABABA (8) What countries border Mali? (A) ALGERIA, MAURITANIA, SENEGAL, GUINEA, COTE D'IVOIRE, BURKINA FASO & NIGER. (9) What is the capital of Burkina Faso? OUAGADOUGOU (10) What countries border Zimbabwe? ZAMBIA, BOTSWANA, SOUTH AFRICA & MOZAMBIQUE 1 1972 2 Craik and Lockhart 1972
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