• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27
  28. 28
  29. 29
  30. 30
  31. 31
  32. 32
  33. 33
  34. 34
  35. 35
  36. 36
  37. 37
  38. 38
  39. 39
  40. 40
  41. 41
  42. 42
  43. 43
  44. 44
  45. 45
  46. 46
  47. 47
  48. 48
  49. 49
  50. 50
  51. 51
  52. 52
  53. 53
  54. 54
  55. 55
  56. 56
  57. 57
  58. 58
  59. 59
  60. 60
  61. 61
  62. 62


Extracts from this document...


A TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF ELITE MALE SOCCER PLAYERS OVER CLUB AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL PERFORMANCE Contents Page Page Number List of Tables List of Figures Abstract CHAPTER I 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Aim of Study 3 1.2 Hypothesis 3 1.3 Assumptions 3 1.4 Limitations 3 1.5 De-Limitations 4 1.6 Definition of Terms 4 CHAPTER II 2.0 Literature Review 5 2.1 Notational Analysis in Football 5 2.2 Factors Determining Success in 7 Football 2.3 Evaluation of Individuals Performance 9 2.4 Positional Demands in Football 10 2.5 Use of Match Analysis by Coaches 12 2.6 Relation of Literature to Study 13 2.7 Aims of Study CHAPTER III 3.0 Methodology 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Equipment 3.21 Hardware 3.22 Software 3.221 Pilot Study 3.222 Final System 3.223 Operational Differences 3.224 Reliability Study 3.3 Data Population 3.4 Procedure 3.5 Data Processing CHAPTER IV 4.0 Results 4.1 Reliability 4.2 Processed Data 4.21 Player Action Distribution 4.22 Comparison of the Mean Quality Rating of Techniques for Selected Variables 4.23 Distribution of Technique Rating Across Selected Performance Variables 4.24 Mean Behaviour Rating and Frequency for First and Last 15 Minutes of Matches 4.25 Mean Player Rating Across Performance CHAPTER V 5.0 Discussion 5.1 Reliability 5.11 Intra-Observer Reliability 5.12 Evaluation of Reliability 5.2 Player Action Distribution 5.3 Comparison of the Quality Rating of Technique For Selected Variables 5.4 Distribution of Technique Rating Across Selected Performance Variables 5.5 Mean Behaviour Rating and Frequency for First and Last 15 Minutes of Matches 5.6 Mean Player Rating Across Performance CHAPTER VI 6.0 Conclusion 6.1 Findings of Study 6.2 Recommendations for Players and Coaches 6.3 Future Recommendations References Appendices Appendix A: Performance Variable and Technical Rating Frequencies List of Tables Table Title Page Number Table 1. Technical requirements of positions (Wiemeyer, 2003) Table 2. Example of data collection sheet Table 3. Intra-observer action observation between T1 and T2 Table 4. Intra-observer technique rating reliability between T1 and T2 List of Figures Figure Title Page Number Figure 1. ...read more.


This specificity is however required, in order to gain a more sound understanding of the technical differences players may adopt in different teams, positions and situations. 3.223 Operational Definitions The operational definitions can be used for analysis of all outfield players, as the behaviours integrated into the system cover most of the actions conducted by players during games. In order to note down the behaviours performed more efficiently, a key was used to denote a players actions: P = Pass - Transferring the ball from one player to another. S = Shot - An attempt to score. T = Tackle - Challenging an opponent for the ball. D = Dispossessed - Losing possession to an opponents' tackle. I = Interception - Cutting out an opponents attempt to pass. B = Block - Blocking a shot at goal with any part of the body other than head. DR = Dribble - Keeping possession of the ball (while moving) against an opponents attempt to retrieve it. AC = Aerial Challenge - Attempt to play the ball in the air. CL = Clearance - Playing the ball up-field or into touch to prevent goal scoring opportunities for opponents. CR = Cross - Horizontal or vertical delivery into opposition area. RB = Rule Breach - Foul conceded. The scoring system bases itself on the outcome of the player's actions, not on the perceived technique in which the skill was performed. In order for this to be a fair test, behaviours were categorised and scored differently; Pass, Cross, Dribble and Arial Challenge are scored as: +3 = Successful completion of behaviour resulting in a direct goal assist. +2 = Successful completion of behaviour resulting in a direct goal attempt. +1 = Successful completion of behaviour, but no direct goal attempt. -1 = Possession conceded. -2 = Opposition have a goal attempt as a direct result of possession conceded. -3 = Opposition score a goal as a direct result of possession conceded. ...read more.


6.0 Conclusion 6.1 Findings of Study The study consisted of a hand notation system with an accepted level of intra-observer reliability under the Chi-squared statistic (p>0.95) for both behaviour frequency observation and technique success rate. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the action distribution for both Player's A and B, across the respective international and league performances. Comparison of the mean quality rating of techniques showed significant differences in the selected performance variables of Aerial Challenges and Shooting for both Player A and Player B. Mean behaviour rating and frequency for the first and last 15 minutes of games demonstrated significant differences (p<0.05) in international performances for Player A, and international and club performances in Player B. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed across the mean player rating for performance for league and international competition with both Players A and B performing at a higher mean rating in international level. This contradicts the hypothesis that the higher expectation levels and unfamiliarity of surroundings at the EURO 2008 Championships, a lower level of technically ability will be observed. 6.2 Recommendations for Players and Coaches From the results reported, it can be stated that significant differences do occur between individual performances for club and international representations. The results could have a practical impact in two ways: i. By encouraging coaches to implement the variables in which individual performers excel more frequently into team strategies. ii. By highlighting the varying levels of performance for individual players at the beginning and end of matches, and the affects this has on their input to the team. 6.3 Future Recommendations This test could be assisted by analysing more games, consequently producing more data which may influence any significant values (Hughes et al., 2002). A further study may wish to alter the technical rating system to allow for one individual system by which all performance variables can be scored by, instead of several individual scoring systems. A Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Witney post hoc test (Vincent, 1999) could be conducted to calculate the significance of differences between variables. This type of statistical test may create further significance between the average technical ratings. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Sports Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Sports Science essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Feedback is the ...

    4 star(s)

    the outcome of a skill or from observation etc. This feedback directly improves intrinsic factors, by using observation, strengths and weaknesses can be identified, which leads to correction of the weaknesses which means that the body gets to experience how the correct movement should 'feel' when performed correctly. This type of feedback is also known as augmented which can

  2. With respect to the body systems describe a childs limitations to physical activity and ...

    Flexibility is also a factor that needs to be considered when discussing children and the musculo-skelatal system. According to answer fitness website (2009), flexibility is defined as the ability to move joints or muscles through their full-range of motion. When it comes to children it is recommended that you use

  1. Technical Analysis of elite male soccer players by position and success

    Inter-observer action observation reliability 25 between T3 Table 10. Intra observer technique rating reliability 26 between T1 and T2 Table 11. Intra observer technique rating reliability 26 between T2 and T3 Table 12. Inter-observer technique rating reliability 27 between T3 List of Figures Figure Title Page Number Figure 1.

  2. In this assignment I'm employed as an assistant to a Sports Development officer within ...

    This will gradually decrease by putting different race coaches, more media, giving the proper ethics and values from the foundation section in the "sports development continuum", etc. The term of concepts of inclusivity it's a term we should all focus on, it means that everyone should have a chance to

  1. Case Study: Developing a Mental Skills Training Programme for elite level athletes

    Phase 5: Skill selection and package development Phase 6: Implementation of programme, education and practice performance routines Phase 7: Evaluation When considering the effectiveness of the suggested framework, Weinberg and Williams` (2001) found that 85% of 45 studies which used it, noted positive effects after its use.

  2. Critically Assess the Value of Comparative Policy Analysis in the Context of Sport

    development has not occurred within the context of sports policy (Houlihan, 2005). However, this is not to say that such framework is limited in its value; Cairney (2012) suggests that the framework and theory which operate in sport policy, provide a relatively robust method of structuring observation and explanation.

  1. Appraisal of the Physiological Underpinnings and Testing Requirement for a Semi-Professional Football Player

    Due to the unpredictable nature of football and more specifically, the frequent direction changes associated with defensive positions, agility was identified as an important attribute in football fitness (Bloomfield, Polman, and O?Donoghue, 2007). Agility, can be further understood as the ability to maintain optimal body positioning whilst quickly changing direction (Twist and Benicky, 1996).

  2. The Role of Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor in the Prevention of Osteoporosis ...

    Gruber, H., Ingram, J., Norton, H., Wei, L., Frausto, A., Mills, B. and Rude, R. (2004) ?Alterations in growth plate and articular cartilage morphology are associated with reduced SOX9 localization in the magnesium-deficient rat?, Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 79(1), pp.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work