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A TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF ELITE MALE SOCCER

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF ELITE MALE SOCCER PLAYERS OVER CLUB AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL PERFORMANCE Contents Page Page Number List of Tables List of Figures Abstract CHAPTER I 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Aim of Study 3 1.2 Hypothesis 3 1.3 Assumptions 3 1.4 Limitations 3 1.5 De-Limitations 4 1.6 Definition of Terms 4 CHAPTER II 2.0 Literature Review 5 2.1 Notational Analysis in Football 5 2.2 Factors Determining Success in 7 Football 2.3 Evaluation of Individuals Performance 9 2.4 Positional Demands in Football 10 2.5 Use of Match Analysis by Coaches 12 2.6 Relation of Literature to Study 13 2.7 Aims of Study CHAPTER III 3.0 Methodology 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Equipment 3.21 Hardware 3.22 Software 3.221 Pilot Study 3.222 Final System 3.223 Operational Differences 3.224 Reliability Study 3.3 Data Population 3.4 Procedure 3.5 Data Processing CHAPTER IV 4.0 Results 4.1 Reliability 4.2 Processed Data 4.21 Player Action Distribution 4.22 Comparison of the Mean Quality Rating of Techniques for Selected Variables 4.23 Distribution of Technique Rating Across Selected Performance Variables 4.24 Mean Behaviour Rating and Frequency for First and Last 15 Minutes of Matches 4.25 Mean Player Rating Across Performance CHAPTER V 5.0 Discussion 5.1 Reliability 5.11 Intra-Observer Reliability 5.12 Evaluation of Reliability 5.2 Player Action Distribution 5.3 Comparison of the Quality Rating of Technique For Selected Variables 5.4 Distribution of Technique Rating Across Selected Performance Variables 5.5 Mean Behaviour Rating and Frequency for First and Last 15 Minutes of Matches 5.6 Mean Player Rating Across Performance CHAPTER VI 6.0 Conclusion 6.1 Findings of Study 6.2 Recommendations for Players and Coaches 6.3 Future Recommendations References Appendices Appendix A: Performance Variable and Technical Rating Frequencies List of Tables Table Title Page Number Table 1. Technical requirements of positions (Wiemeyer, 2003) Table 2. Example of data collection sheet Table 3. Intra-observer action observation between T1 and T2 Table 4. Intra-observer technique rating reliability between T1 and T2 List of Figures Figure Title Page Number Figure 1. ...read more.

Middle

This specificity is however required, in order to gain a more sound understanding of the technical differences players may adopt in different teams, positions and situations. 3.223 Operational Definitions The operational definitions can be used for analysis of all outfield players, as the behaviours integrated into the system cover most of the actions conducted by players during games. In order to note down the behaviours performed more efficiently, a key was used to denote a players actions: P = Pass - Transferring the ball from one player to another. S = Shot - An attempt to score. T = Tackle - Challenging an opponent for the ball. D = Dispossessed - Losing possession to an opponents' tackle. I = Interception - Cutting out an opponents attempt to pass. B = Block - Blocking a shot at goal with any part of the body other than head. DR = Dribble - Keeping possession of the ball (while moving) against an opponents attempt to retrieve it. AC = Aerial Challenge - Attempt to play the ball in the air. CL = Clearance - Playing the ball up-field or into touch to prevent goal scoring opportunities for opponents. CR = Cross - Horizontal or vertical delivery into opposition area. RB = Rule Breach - Foul conceded. The scoring system bases itself on the outcome of the player's actions, not on the perceived technique in which the skill was performed. In order for this to be a fair test, behaviours were categorised and scored differently; Pass, Cross, Dribble and Arial Challenge are scored as: +3 = Successful completion of behaviour resulting in a direct goal assist. +2 = Successful completion of behaviour resulting in a direct goal attempt. +1 = Successful completion of behaviour, but no direct goal attempt. -1 = Possession conceded. -2 = Opposition have a goal attempt as a direct result of possession conceded. -3 = Opposition score a goal as a direct result of possession conceded. ...read more.

Conclusion

6.0 Conclusion 6.1 Findings of Study The study consisted of a hand notation system with an accepted level of intra-observer reliability under the Chi-squared statistic (p>0.95) for both behaviour frequency observation and technique success rate. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the action distribution for both Player's A and B, across the respective international and league performances. Comparison of the mean quality rating of techniques showed significant differences in the selected performance variables of Aerial Challenges and Shooting for both Player A and Player B. Mean behaviour rating and frequency for the first and last 15 minutes of games demonstrated significant differences (p<0.05) in international performances for Player A, and international and club performances in Player B. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed across the mean player rating for performance for league and international competition with both Players A and B performing at a higher mean rating in international level. This contradicts the hypothesis that the higher expectation levels and unfamiliarity of surroundings at the EURO 2008 Championships, a lower level of technically ability will be observed. 6.2 Recommendations for Players and Coaches From the results reported, it can be stated that significant differences do occur between individual performances for club and international representations. The results could have a practical impact in two ways: i. By encouraging coaches to implement the variables in which individual performers excel more frequently into team strategies. ii. By highlighting the varying levels of performance for individual players at the beginning and end of matches, and the affects this has on their input to the team. 6.3 Future Recommendations This test could be assisted by analysing more games, consequently producing more data which may influence any significant values (Hughes et al., 2002). A further study may wish to alter the technical rating system to allow for one individual system by which all performance variables can be scored by, instead of several individual scoring systems. A Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Witney post hoc test (Vincent, 1999) could be conducted to calculate the significance of differences between variables. This type of statistical test may create further significance between the average technical ratings. ...read more.

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