Aggression in Gill (1966).
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Debbie Spicer Aggression Gill (1966) proposed that aggression has several features: * It is a behaviour: actually doing something not just wanting to do it. * It involves harm or an injury to another living organism: it can either be physical harm or psychological harm such as creating fear in an opponent. * It involves intent and is not done by accident Baron stated that 'aggression is any form of behaviour toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment'. Aggression is behaviour which is intentional and deliberate and it involves injury to another person. Assertion A performer who plays with energy and emotion and within the rules of the game is showing assertive behaviours. Assertive behaviour is acceptable but forceful behaviour. It is also; * Goal directed behaviour * The use of valid verbal or physical force * Behaviour which has no intention to harm or injure * Behaviour which does
E.g. getting angry at work, building up aggression then becoming aggressive in a football match after work. Instinct theories of aggression These theories suggest that aggression is an instinct that has evolved to help us survive. The psychoanalytical approach Freud claimed that we have instincts which have to be satisfied. These instincts create an energy drive which is used to satisfaction. Aggression is part of what he called out death instincts, which are destructive. They are in conflict with our life instincts (called eros), which are positive and creative. Freud and Lorenze saw aggression as building up within a person with eros directing it away from self to some other kind of aggressive behaviour. The ethological approach Aggression is seen as building up within humans which creates a drive. If it is not released in a constructive way achieving catharsis (using sport to let out aggression)
The frustration-aggression theory This theory suggests that aggression is both inherited and learned and it is related to frustration. Frustration occurs when we are prevented from achieving our goals. Dollard et al (1939) argued that aggression is an inherited response that only occurs in frustrating situations. Aggression is always caused by frustration and frustration will always cause some sort of aggression. Miller claimed that frustration makes aggression more likely to occur, but it may not be shown. This is the frustration-aggression model Limitations on this model are: * not all frustration leads to aggression in sport * aggression can be a learned response and does not always happen as a result of frustration * individual and situational differences are not taken into account * the cathartic effect of aggression is not upheld * Frustration leads to a pre-disposition to behave aggressively by increasing anger and arousal. This arousal and anger will only lead to aggression if certain learned cues or environmental stimuli are present. This is the revised model of the frustration-aggression theory
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