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University Degree: Developmental & Reproductive Biology

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  1. Contrast the Biological Differences between Heterosexual Males and Homosexual Males

    Sexual orientation is a person's disposition as to what gender they are sexually attracted to (Baur & Crooks, 1999). The typical sexual orientation shared by most people is heterosexuality, which describes the attraction to the opposite sex. This sexual orientation explains the attraction between men and women. Homosexuality though refers to attraction among the same sex. It should be considered that sexual attraction in humans is on a scale, and that dominantly heterosexual men may sometimes become attracted to another male and that dominantly homosexual men may sometimes become attracted to females. Because this paper will be contrasting the biological differences between heterosexual and homosexual men, most-if not all-of the studies cited will have been carried out on predominantly or exclusively heterosexual men and predominantly or exclusively homosexual men.

    • Word count: 2815
  2. SERUM LIPID PROFILE

    been found to be associated with changes in lipid profile and this changes vary or differ with each trimester (Idonije et al., 2011). The anabolic phase of early pregnancy encourages lipogenesis and fat storage in preparation for rapid fetal growth in late pregnancy more especially in the third trimester which is in response to the maternal switch from carbohydrate to fat metabolism for this is an alternative pathway for energy generation due to high energy demand (Wald and Guckle, 1988).

    • Word count: 3694
  3. Mitochondrial genetics. Are there really only maternally inherited mitochondria in our cells? What happens if paternal mitochondria happen to be present in the autosomal/germ cells? Is maternal mtDNA inheritance a universal mechanism that works for the en

    al 2005; Cables, 2002; Danan, 1999; Foley, 2003; Hayashida et al, 2005; Kunchithapadam, 1995); Whittle, Jonston, 2002). There are a small number of lineages that can be traced down to our common ancestor - the 'Mitochondrial Eve'. Our mtDNA is identical to that of our mothers and almost identical to the Mitochondrial Eve's mtDNA. As normal DNA, mtDNA mutates occasionally, switching one base (A, C, G or T) to another. So, mtDNA slowly diverges from that of Mitochondrial Eve at a rate proportional to the amount of time that has passed since the Mitochondrial Eve's existence.

    • Word count: 2233
  4. Fetal Hemoglobin

    Everest, not nearly enough pressure for an adult. How then, can a fetus survive on such low oxygen pressure? A fetus is able to cope with this low amount of oxygen pressure in several ways: 1. A fetal heart beats extremely fast - an average of 150 times per minute. A normal adult, on the other hand, has an average heartbeat between 70-80 times per minute. 2. A fetus has more red blood cells per cubic millimeter than an adult (seven million compared to five million in an adult!). A fetus' heart must beat quickly in order to allow such large amounts of red blood cells to pick up the much-needed placental oxygen.

    • Word count: 1326
  5. The Female Orgasm: Adaptation, Artefact or culturally learned? ( Department of Psychology - University of Liverpool)

    The second bias is assuming that female sexuality is like male sexuality; which says men and women have similar sexual responses. After presenting overwhelming evidence of women responding differently to intercourse than men, it will progress to the second section with a theory that assumes neither an adaptive function of the orgasm nor an androcentric account of it (Lloyd, 2005) but explains the phenomenon with the best supporting research available today. The final section will present a critique of biological accounts of the female orgasm and describe cultural (psychological, demographic and early experiences)

    • Word count: 4683
  6. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique, which allows the amplification of a specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) region that lies between two regions of known DNA sequenc

    Primers are designed such that the free 3'-end of each primer faces the other one, and so DNA synthesis proceeds on both strands through the region between the two primers. 4. Temperature at which annealing of the primers to the template DNA occurs depends upon the length and sequence of the primer, and the level of specificity required in a particular PCR reaction. 5. Ideally, temperature in the range of 45-60�C would be chosen. Table 1: Additional information on the three steps of PCR6 (Continued)

    • Word count: 3338
  7. Control of Respiration

    External respiration is the diffusion of O� from the alveoli of the lungs to the blood in capillaries and diffusion of CO� in the opposing direction. In the lungs deoxygenated blood coming from the right side of the heart is converted into oxygenated returning to the left side of heart. O� is uploaded through the pulmonary capillaries and CO� is unloaded into the alveolar air. Internal respiration is the gas exchange of O� and CO� between systemic capillaries and tissue cells throughout the whole body.

    • Word count: 1747
  8. proteins in mammalian PC12

    Aim..................................................................16 3. Methods....................................................................................18 3.1 Clonase reaction....................................................................18 3.2 Transformation reaction...........................................................18 3.3 Minipreps..............................................................................19 3.4 Midipreps...............................................................................20 3.5 Culturing PC12 cells...............................................................20 3.6 Transfection............................................................................21 3.7 Fixing cells for GFP-fusion protein localisation...............................23 3.8 Testing for GFP fluorescence........................................................23 4. Results....................................................................................23 4.1 Concentrations of DNA in Q100 and Q75 in pcDNA-DEST 53............ 24 4.2 Detection of the fusion protein.......................................................29 5 Discussion...................................................................................31 5.1 Validity of results and implications for future research.......................36 5.2 Conclusion...............................................................................37 6 References...........................................................................38 7. Acknowledgements..........................................................39 1 Introduction 1.1 Huntington's disease Huntington's disease (HD) is named after George Huntington who was a physician and in 1872 he described it as "hereditary chorea" .The disease has a prevalence of 4.1-8.4 per 100,000 people in the United States.

    • Word count: 10537
  9. Contraceptives

    Generally, they consumed the seeds of herbs and other products made up of plants and herbs which served them as oral contraceptives. But these things were dangerous. Therefore to prevent this intrauterine device (IUD) was introduced. This was done by some ancient people who inserted small pieces of stone into the camels' uterus to prevent pregnancy. The intrauterine device (IUD) is a small device which is inserted into the women's uterus to prevent them from being pregnant. It is generally made up of plastic.

    • Word count: 2042
  10. The Human Genome Project

    that may arise from the project. History of the Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project (HGP) refers to the international 13-year effort, formally begun in October 1990 and completed in 2003, to discover all the estimated 20,000-25,000 human genes and make them accessible for further biological study. Another project goal was to determine the complete sequence of the 3 billion DNA subunits (bases in the human genome).

    • Word count: 538
  11. Nutrition is the relationship of foods to the health of the human body.

    After assessing my diet throw the week and recording and analysing its nutrition value, relative to my gender, weight and age I had chance to learn, the food that I intake what are they consist of. I found my energy intake to be a lower than the recommended 1940 kcal per day. I consumed 1472.5 kcal. Food calories are nutrients and supply energy to the body. To increase this I should eat more fresh fruits and vegetables. Fats are essential nutrients.

    • Word count: 2494
  12. Issues in Food and Nutrition Essay

    Resulting in a staple diet amongst most the western world. A complete contrast to the diet of survival that has evolved in the eastern world. The cost belief relationship between a healthy diet for the richer end of society and the poor has evolved starting as far back as the Roman times. The Roman Republics frugal diet was if you were wealthy then food became available and varied for those who could afford it. In today's modern environment a healthy human diet is available where food is in surplus and where there is a general reduction of physical activity.

    • Word count: 3042
  13. Discuss The Significance Of Normal And Abnormal Mitosis And Meiosis In The Lifecycle Of Humans

    As soon as the chromosomes begin to condense, the DNA becomes inactive. The condensation of the chromosomes into separate structures enables them to be moved easily. During Interphase they are diffuse and would become entangled if they were moved about the nucleus. In the later stages of Prophase, pairs of sister chromatids can be seen. These chromatids are attached at a point called the centromere. The nucleoli disappear, the nuclear membrane breaks down and a spindle apparatus is formed. The spindle apparatus is made up of microtubules which control the movements of the chromosomes.

    • Word count: 1700
  14. Life cycle

    This is strictly true only for organisms reproducing asexually. 2. Single-celled organisms, like protozoans, can reproduce asexually by dividing in two. Each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the parent's genes. 3. For multicellular organisms (and many single-celled organisms), the offspring are not genetically identical to the parents, but each is a unique combination of the traits of both parents. 4. Breeders of domestic plants and animals manipulate sexual reproduction by selecting offspring that exhibit certain desired traits.

    • Word count: 2261
  15. The Human Genome Project and its Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    The goal of physical mapping is to produce a genome map consisting of approximately 30 000 markers separated by about 100 kilobases. Each marker will be a sequence-tagged site, a stretch of DNA with a unique and well-defined sequence. Sequencing, that is, the listing of the order of the approximately three billion base pairs that make up the human genome, is the final planned step of the project. Also key is the pursuit of advances in technology, including robotics, automation, and new methods of identifying and mapping genes, to allow large-scale sequencing.

    • Word count: 2110
  16. DNA and Manipulating Reproduction.

    However this is not so with the oldest living organism on the planet being 3000 years old - a tree, still producing saplings! How the number of eggs in a female declines throughout the years: At 16 weeks, the female foetus contains 7 millions eggs, however this number decreases as the cells die - apoptosis (cell death). By birth, nine weeks, a female baby has only 2 million eggs contained in her uterus. Despite these relatively large numbers, females only use 360 eggs in a lifetime, although as mentioned above, the eggs a female releases later in her life are much less fertile.

    • Word count: 1186
  17. Is there a genetic link of alcoholism?

    However meiosis is made much more complicated by a processed called crossing over; this means that the chromosomes can be broken up and sections of the chromosome can switch over and exchange with each other making a unique combination of 23 chromosomes which can be passed on to the offspring When the gametes from each parent combine at fertilisation 'a zygote (fertilized egg cell) with the full complement of chromosomes is produced' (Pinel J.P.J, 2000, 36,) [3] thus creating an even more unique combination of genetic material.

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  18. The role of hormones in the female reproductive system.

    begins a cascade of hormones through the animal that are responsible for the oestrus cycle taking place. It is secreted in a pulsating manner with rises and falls in concentrations from the hypothalamus where it is transported to the anterior pituitary gland. It is here that the GnRH controls the release of two protein hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) which are known collectively as gonadotrophins. Because the release of GnRH is in waves, consequently FSH and LH are secreted in waves too. These gonadotrophins are released into the general blood system and are transported to the gonads where they have their major effect.

    • Word count: 857
  19. Should reproductive hormones be used to alter fertility?

    The combination of complementary and conventional care works well but more importantly; it can give the couple the highest potential for success." http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Womens%20Health/infertil.htm When fertility drugs are used many people believe that they just do one thing and increase fertility however they can have many harmful side effects. Many people can over look this when they decide to use them to increase their fertility. "The effectiveness of fertility drugs such as Clomiphene and Bromocriptine are overshadowed by their many, and often very harmful, side effects.

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  20. Explain the treatments available to help infertile couples have children.

    The doctor can then perceive when the eggs are mature by monitoring the blood level hormone of the women, on an ultrasound. When the eggs are ready to be retrieved, the doctor will remove them using a fine hollow needle. The eggs are then combined with the partner's sperm in a dish containing a nutrient, which is then refined in an incubator. Two days later any fertilised eggs will become a ball of cells called an embryo, two or three embryos are transferred into the uterus through the cervix with a thin catheter.

    • Word count: 1722
  21. The Endocrine systems involvement in the control of the female reproductive system.

    Prolactin stimulates the mammary glands of the breast, to promote and sustain milk production. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) encourages the production of eggs in women and sperm in men, whilst the luteinizing hormone motivates the release of the eggs and the creation of progesterone in women, and the emission of testosterone in men. The thyroid is generated into hormone production by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the pituitary gland, whereas the adrenal gland is prompted into action by the adrenocorticotrophic hormone. The posterior lobe of the pituitary contains oxytocin and antidiuretic hormones, formed in the hypothalamus, and transported to the pituitary within nerve fibres.

    • Word count: 1602
  22. Designer Babies and the eradication of genetic disease

    This allowed only the female embryos to be selected and implanted into the potential mothers. After this process was carried out, both of the patients gave birth to healthy female twins. This process would not have been possible if it were not for the discovery of PCR by Kary Mullis in 1985. The technique used is now called Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis, and to date it allows the screening of more than 100 different genetic diseases (Strode. A, 2011). This technique allows the identification of embryos that carry inherited mutations in single genes. PGD involves several steps and can be used to select embryos without a genetic disorder, to have less cancer predisposition, to match a

    • Word count: 1513

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