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University Degree: Botany
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The specific structures of a leaf can be found below. Leaf structure is a relevant subject which needs a certain understanding. The leaf itself is comprised of several layers. From the outside in, there is the cuticle, upper epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, and then the lower epidermis. The cuticle is the waxy, protective layer that helps prevent water loss by preventing the water in the plant's tissues from evaporating. Right underneath the cuticle, where most of the light energy is received, is the upper epidermal layer.
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Demonstrate the separation of plant pigments using chromatography and the rate of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts.
The carbon dioxide is reduced by the addition of electrons provided by NADPH. In order to make glucose from carbon dioxide, the Calvin cycle also utilizes chemical energy from ATP. Pigments aid in the absorption of light. In plants, the main light-absorbing pigments are known as chlorophyll. There are two main types of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Each type of chlorophyll absorbs different wavelengths of light. Another type of pigment is the carotenoids, pigments in shades of yellow and orange. Carotenoids may broaden the spectrum of colors and absorb light harmful to chlorophyll.
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In 1649, Loxley Chase was described as 'the herbage common and consiteth of great oake timber.' After the enclosure acts of the eighteenth century it was divided into regular walled enclosures and crossed by straight roads, which still remain today. Before the second half of the twentieth century most of the changes in the agricultural forms of the landscape were evolutionary, not revolutionary. But after the Second World War, some of the most dramatic changes have taken place. Firstly, the working horse has disappeared. So now oats, grown as fodder for horses, are not grown. Many features associated with horses and traditional farming have vanished, for example the fields no longer need to accommodate horse driven ploughs and turning circles.
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As evaporation precedes from the mesophyll cells the air within the sub-stomatal air chambers develops greater saturation. There will be a concentration gradient dependent on the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. This will dictate the rate water transpires out through the stomata. Plant species have adapted to suit their environment via natural selection. Plants in dry/arid habitats such as Cacti have cut down the number of stomata, and lowering their evaporating surface areas. In the other direction plants in a rain forest have developed far larger surface areas and greater number of stomata to allow far greater water potential to develop within the plant.
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Place the contents into the large beaker and whilst stirring heat to a temperature of 80�C for two minutes. Now place the large beaker into a cold-water bath and cool the contents to about 20�C, stirring continuously. Then take the cooled apple and separate into two beakers, each beaker should contain exactly 60g of apple. Weigh out two different amounts of pectinase; add these to the separate beakers of apple and stir for two minutes. Transfer the contents of each beaker into the two filter funnels and record the volume of juice collected after 30 minutes using the measuring cylinder.
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Table to show how the amount of juice collected changes over time, with and without the enzyme pectinase. Amount of juice collected (cm3) Rate of collection x 100 (cm3/s) Percentage more apple juice collected with pectinase Time/seconds With pectinase Without pectinase With pectinase Without pectinase 60 4.0 1.2 6.67 2.00 233% 120 5.4 1.4 2.33 0.33 286% 180 6.2 1.6 1.33 0.33 288% 240 6.6 1.8 0.67 0.33 267% 300 6.8 2.0 0.33 0.33 240% 360 7.0 2.1 0.33 0.17 233% 420 7.2 2.2 0.33 0.17 227% 480 7.3 2.3 0.17 0.17 217% 540 7.4 2.4 0.17 0.17 208% 600
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Working with the Oenothera lamarckiana (the evening primrose), de Vries was able to produce his theory of mutation. He agreed with discontinuous variation, staging that species evolve from other species by large sudden phenotypic changes. In his case, he noticed that a plant would usually have offspring that contained noteworthy differences from it such as leaf shape or plant size. These offspring would then occasionally pass these traits to their offspring. Ignoring that these traits observed in the primrose usually were from aberrant chromosomal segregations and not mutation, de Vries certainly had the right idea. Although he did not know of Mendel's work, when he published his work in 1990, he concluded with identical results.
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Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform inorganic compounds to organic compounds.
Syringes. II) Cork borer and rubber stopper III) Beaker IV) Light filters [green, blue, red] V) Light source [fluorescent] VI) Sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO3] 0.2% solution VII) Broad bean seedlings. In a nutshell, by the use of vacuum, produced O2 [by photosynthesis] is sucked out of the leaf discs [which were cut from a young broad bean seedling] with no air in the leaves the disc start to sink to the bottom in either a dH2O or a NaHCO3 solution, then a fluorescent light is placed [different or no filters for different groups] so that the discs can once again start photosynthesis.
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From this region, the cultivation of rice had spread to Indonesia, the Philippines and northern Australia. Later, traders carried the grain throughout Asia, the Middle East, Europe and finally the New World.(Greenland, 1997) Production Statistics According to Singh et al 2000, China is the largest producer of rice in the world currently and next followed by India. China accounts for 21 per cent of the total global rice production. Please refer to Appendix 1. Varieties Table 1: Rice products and uses for human foods (Esminger.
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In unripe fruit, pectin is bound to cellulose in the cell walls. This type of pectin is insoluble and the liquid within the cell remains fluid. The fluid asserts pressure on the cell walls making the fruit seem hard because of the cell walls rigidity. Enzymes are large globular molecules of which the vast majority are made of protein. All globular proteins have a tertiary structure, which is maintained by hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and sometimes disulphide bonds, which are links between different parts of the polypeptide chain.
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Thick and with varied species, with dense ground cover. Yet trees are very important in all our lives. Our country has traditionally had broadleaf deciduous trees. They evoke a feeling of harmony to anyone that has lived in this country. Now wildwood is gone and much woodland has been cleared disappeared so we only have around 8% of our land covered in trees. There are several places where trees grow: * Woodland (Traditional wood, secondary to the wildwood) * Wood pasture (used for grazing animals, is now much rarer) * Non-Woodland (Trees in hedgerows and fields) * Orchards * Trees of gardens and streets.
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Determine the relationship between light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis in spinach leaves.
The net reaction of photosynthesis is CO2 + H2O + light energy yields (CH2O) + H2O + O2 where (CH2O) stands for carbohydrate. Overall, photosynthesis consists of two sets of reactions: one that is light dependent and one that is independent of light. In the light dependent reactions use energy from light is absorbed by chlorophyll. This powers the release of electrons from water, which are then transferred to the electron carrier, NADPH. Oxygen is a product of the light dependent reactions.
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This investigation aims to determine what effect an increase in the surrounding temperature has on the plasma membrane of a typical plant cell structure.
This shows that the plasma membrane must be denatured. In the cells of a beetroot plant, a substance called anthocyanin is contained within the plasma membrane. It is anthocyanin which gives the beetroot its characteristic blue/purple colour. If a cell is damaged in a beetroot plant and the membrane is broken, the anthocyanin 'bleeds' from the cells like a dye. In this experiment the temperature denatures the membrane causing it to bleed the dye out of the cell. Although the above values are a range of values obtained from the investigation, it does not actually show how the figures are close to one another.
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An investigation to compare the number of Chironomus sp in a woodland pond compared to a meadow pond.
It also serves as a home for numerous burrowing species like the Chironomus sp and acts as a good insulator. Mud, together with it detritus, thus provides an important ecological habitat for the Chironomus sp. Light is also a important abiotic factor, in areas where mud is predominant there is less vegetation due to low light intensity, which results in low oxygen availability. The oxygen content is also an important factor in the Chironomus sp living conditions as you can see from table 1.0 in appendix 1 the deeper the mud the less oxygen saturation.
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The humus is formed form the decomposition of marram grass. This will decrease the pH levels, as more H+ ions will be in the sand. Method: * To find the profile on the sand dune we will be using the line transect and frame quadrant method. * The reference pole(C) should be placed in the distance and will be used to align the other to poles. * The two other poles (A and B) will need to be separated by 10 meters using the string attached to a spirit level.
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This site is very likely not to receive up-welling water from the ground water reserves due to its sheer distance from it and so it is not a gleyed soil. Also through-flow movements downslope will be much higher here, resulting in an enhanced rate of lateral translocation of solutes and suspended material, again giving a possible reason for the soil profile's colour. The dense woodland of Scott's pine trees curb wind velocities, slowing air movements raising air masses and intensifying upward wind currents and so increase the condensation of water vapour, creating ideal moist conditions for soil bacteria such as decomposers and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, that could produce acidic excrement which could weather rock fragments present in the soil.
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(Sollars, Lecture 5, 2001). From the information presented in the case, we are not able to tell if conditions number one and two are true or not. We are, however, able to show that condition number three is satisfied, therefore if we apply the question to this case, we can show that the closure of the Eastland plant does violate the "moral minimum" because of the hardship (harm) it causes to its employees and to the community.
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Blowouts- where protection against the wind is removed, sand is picked up from a strong wind and deposited elsewhere, leaving a 'hole'. Fixed dunes- when the vegetation has developed so that it forms a more or less complete cover of the substrate, the dunes are fixed. During this fieldwork, the following data was recorded. Plant species percentage cover, slope profile, air temperature, soil temperature, soil pH, wind speed, light intensity, and percentage air humidity. The plant species cover was calculated using a basic line transect.
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I also predict the soil temp will be lower in the troughs than the peaks because they are less exposed to the sunlight. Air Humidity - I predict that the air humidity will at first be high when near the sea and then lower in the mid sand dunes before rising quite a lot in the woodland area. Air Temp - I expect the air temperature to remain quite consistent throughout the investigation. Variations might be due to the time and I expect the air temp to cool down towards the evening or if it rains, but not to be affected by any of the other factors.
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* Hewden Plant Hire is one of the market leaders and has the highest net worth out of all the companies. * Hewden Plant Hire has ISO 9002 quality assurance, this shows the customers that they meet certain standards and are a good reliable company. * Always working on the relationship with customers to ensure that they use Hewden Plant Hire again in the future. * Having a good management team to run the company efficiently and effectively. * Hewden Plant Hire is a very profitable company. The latest turnover that it made was �331.8 million.
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1) These, however, are still not small enough to pass though the membranes, and need to be broken down further. This emulsification creates a greater surface area of fat on which the lipase can work. Effectively there is more substrate, and so all the lipase enzymes are working to their full capacity (Fig. 1) In the breakdown of fats, Fatty acids are produced, which changes the overall pH of the solution, giving a simple way of measuring the breakdown of fats.
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Both the Ercall and The Wrekin are a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The Ercall is mainly composed of Pre-Cambrian acdic igneous rock which was formally quarried to provide road stone for the nearby A5. This was certainly destructive, but it had the exceptionally wonderful effect of laying bare the Earth's history; revealing rocks from the earliest beginnings of life on this planet. This is a good site for wildlife with a rich variety of plants and springtime flowers, also the favoured stronghold of one of Telford's speciality butterflies, the dingy skipper. A recent survey of the nature reserve's invertebrates yielded a staggering 821 species.
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Investigation to find out if Stinging Nettles in undisturbed areas have less stingers (trichomes) than nettles grown in grazed grassland.
This irritates the skin causing white itchy spots to appear. Common habitats for nettles are hedgerows, soil heaps, riverbanks and shaded land. The leaves contain high levels of magnesium, iron, nitrogen and calcium. Variables: The independent variable will be the type of grassland (grazed or ungrazed). The dependant variable will be the number of stingers on the nettle leaf (per cm2). I will collect 10 leaves from each area I want to examine. The difference between the areas is that one will have been subjected to animal grazing and the other, undisturbed for a long space of time.
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The difference in Bracken growth in 2 areas of woodland; one with majority oak and the other majority larch.
I will therefore systematically measure the pH levels in every 5th quadrat taken in each site. This will be done by taking soil samples from the centre of each quadrat and then analysing the soil once back at the lab by using barium sulphate, deionised water and universal indicator. Slope and Aspect: As the sites I will be working on are situated on hillside I will take the aspect and slop readings (using a compass and clinometer). In doing so I can try and work on similar slopes to make sure that it is not effecting my results.
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Test the following two hypothesises, "Trees modify their environment" and "Differences in woodland ecosystem are the result of different management strategies".
It was then shaken, and left for two minutes. While we waited, we saw a slight colour change in the tube, a pH identification chart was used to find out what the soil pH level was. We then worked out the soil moisture; we did this by using the soil moisture testing, we got the soil moisture meter and dug it into the soil and it gave us a soil moisture reading. We soil test the temperature we did this bye holding the thermometer in the air and waited till it stopped moving.
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