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University Degree: Botany
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- Marked by Teachers essays 4
This uses less energy and resources to construct. Many shade plants (such as ferns) do not produce flowers for the same reason. * Shade leaves have more chlorophyll in the antenna systems to feed more energy to the reaction centres. There is also an increase in the number of reaction centres. * Shade light contains more light in the far-red range. The reaction centre of photosystem II (PSII) absorbs more light from the far-red range than photosystem I (PSI); hence there is a greater proportion of PSII to PSI.
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Drought conditions, low and high temperatures, increased salt levels, pathogens and insects are common environmental stresses which plants are exposed to. Over time, plants have evolved unique mechanisms to respond to the stresses3 star(s)
RIPs or ribosome inactivating proteins disrups viral replication by deactivating the plants ribosomes, therefore preventing cell replication and therefore also the viral pathogens replication. Hydrolases are present which break down the components of the pathogens and enzyme inhibitors inhibit enzymes which are used by the pathogen in the infection process. Induced plant defences are those defences which are initiated after a pathogen infection has been detected. These defences are chemical changes within the cell wall which cause the formation of papillae, which in fungal attack form reinforced areas around the penetration peg, preventing the full insertion of the peg, Buchanan et al.
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