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Cocaine Addiction: Literature Review, Modalities, and Improved Treatment Plan

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Cocaine Addiction: Literature Review, Modalities, and Improved Treatment Plan by Addam Brown A Paper Presented in Fulfillment Of the Requirements of CST5108 - Foundations of Addictive and Compulsive Behavior Addam Brown June, 2011 627 E Trail Creek Dr Nampa ID 83686 208/899.0055 [email protected] Dr. Wayne Cunningham Abstract The purpose of this paper will focus on an intervention design for cocaine addiction that place emphasis on the historical and current role, the rights, diversity, and legal or ethical issues that play a role with cocaine addiction as well as the diagnosis and treatment that will help cocaine addicts become drug free from other researchers through literature review. It will also describe the available treatment interventions critiques from the strengths, weaknesses, and other issues to treat cocaine addiction as well as an existing intervention design that is appropriate for treating cocaine addiction. Table of Contents Literature Review 5 Historical Role 5 Current Role 6 Rights, Diversity, and Legal/Ethical Issues 6 Diagnosis and Treatment 8 Treatment Intervention (Trends Critique) 11 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 11 Description 11 Strengths 11 Weaknesses 12 Contingency Reinforcement Description 15 Strength 15 Weaknesses 15 Other Issues 15 Other Intervention 17 Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy & Contingency Reinforcement 18 Intervention Design 20 Description and Case Study 20 Conclusion 25 References 26 Literature Review Fundukian and Wilson (2008) define cocaine as a "whitish crystalline powder that produces feelings of euphoria when ingested, it is most commonly inhaled or snorted, and it may also be dissolved in water and injected" (p. 268). They went on to say that cocaine is also described as crack and that crack cocaine is a "form of cocaine that can be smoked and that produces an immediate, more intense, and more short-lived high, and it comes in off like white chunks or chips that is called rocks" (268). Cocaine is addictive and keeps one coming back for more because of the craving, which causes them to do any and everything they can to get this drug because it gives them a high. ...read more.


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) appears to be the recommended form of treatment for those with a drug addiction like cocaine addiction. CBT is a form of therapy that makes the client aware of why they participate in certain destructive behaviors, as well as teaching them how to change their behavior to something positive. This approach is an appropriate treatment for cocaine addiction because it has been used through out society (NIDA, 2001). Contingency Reinforcement Description Contingency reinforcement is a treatment approach that replaces the cocaine addiction with other positive reinforcement. Contingency reinforcement has been proven to be effective in promoting cocaine addicts who stop using cocaine by replacing highs of the drugs by natural highs such as reinforcers for the client. It provides other types of reinforcers for abstaining from drugs such as a job, a house, and money if they can prove that they are drug free from a urine sample (LeSage, 2008). Strength A strength of contingency management is that it has the capability to form behaviors that are connected, which includes abstaining from drugs. In other words, it will give the client avenues in which to focus on to change those behaviors. Weaknesses One weakness of contingency management is the skills required for this treatment is not familiar to experienced counselors. Another weakness of contingency management is that the results from completing the treatment fail to show that many of the cocaine addicts do not react to this treatment often because they do not give an example of the changed behavior, and that they receive no reward (Carroll, & Rounsaville, 2007). Other Issues Human rights are an important part of any counseling treatment. The human rights of contingency management is that the client has the right to know the procedures in which they will have to follow in order to change that targeted behavior for incentives, how long the treatment last, and what are the consequences of the client's success or failures in making the behavior change (Higgins, & Petry, 1999). ...read more.


Next, the incentive would be very difficult to continue because of the cost. Lastly, the client may not abstain from cocaine because she is being rewarded to stay free not on her own free will. Conclusion Fundukian and Wilson (2008) define cocaine as a "whitish crystalline powder that produces feelings of euphoria when ingested, it is most commonly inhaled or snorted, and it may also be dissolved in water and injected" (p. 268). Cocaine is addictive and keeps one coming back for more because of the craving, which makes them do anything to purchase this drug because it gives them that high. It does not matter what it is, it could be lying, stealing, cheating, or prostitution. A person that is addicted to cocaine is not likely to seek treatment their own unless something extreme happens in their life or required to by legal actions. There are several types of therapies available for cocaine addiction. For example, a counseling intervention model for cocaine addiction using a combination of CBT, contingency management, and support recovery meeting can be effective. For instance, support recovery meeting, which is a 12-step program for cocaine addicts who struggle with relapse. In a few counties, there are drug rehabs and drug recovery programs like support community meeting, that is making an impact such as Serenity House, which is an inpatient facility that focuses on drug treatment programs once the client is ready. This student feels that the intervention as a whole is an effective model because it looks at several aspects of the addiction, negative experiences such as anxiety, personality, as well as neglecting responsibilities, the neurotransmitter of the brain, it causes heart damage, and the intense energy creates emotional and physical depression (Inaba, & Cohen, 2007), which could have caused trauma leading to the addictive behaviors. The behaviors themselves that were linked to the negative have now become positive so the follow-up therapy along with support group will enable the client to live a productive life without drugs. ...read more.

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