• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

KONTEAS BENNY 10/5/2003 Psychology Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning focuses on learning associations, and refers to the conditioning reflexes. For example how animals learn to associate new-presented stimuli with bodily functions e.g. Pavlov dog learnt through association that the noise of the bell meant food so when hearing it made it salivate. These principles of classical conditioning were first outlined by Pavlov and then taken on by Watson. Pavlov believed jugging by his experiments that dogs had learnt to associate new external stimuli (sound of the bell), with the first presented stimuli (food) that caused the salivation as a reflex. On the other hand operant conditioning involves learning through the consequences of behavioral responses. The principles of operant conditioning were investigated by Thorn dike, and where taken on by Skinner which he developed. ...read more.

Middle

As important as classical conditioning is, it must be recognized that it only deals with how new stimuli come to control existing involuntary responses. While reflexes and the 'gut-level' responses associated with emotions play a role in our everyday experience, most of our behaviour is self-generated, or voluntary. Behaviours are not elicited by conditioned stimuli. Instead, they are emitted - that is, generated by the individual as a way of influencing the surrounding environment. In order to understand such complex behaviour we need to use a different method of approach. This approach is operant conditioning, which is an approach that deals with how voluntary responses change over time as a function of their consequences. For example a starved cat by pushing on a door handle (response) ...read more.

Conclusion

Extinction exists when the unconditioned stimulus is not presented for several consecutive trials then the animal stops responding. On the other hand in classical conditioning if the C.S (bell) is continually presented without the U.C.S (food), then the C.R (salivation) will gradually die out or extinguish. In addition, in operant conditioning if the response is not reinforced, it will gradually extinguish. Nevertheless, in classical conditioning the animals that take place are "passive receivers" they simply stand in a position waiting for the experiment to finish (e.g Pavlov's dog) whereas in operant conditioning the whole experiment is based on the actions of the animals (e.g Skinner's mouse). Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Acquisition Acquisition Extinction Extinction Spontaneous recovery Spontaneous recovery Stimulus generalization Stimulus generalization Association between stimuli and responses Reinforcement Based on involuntary reflexive behavior Based on voluntary behavior ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Discuss, Compare and Contrast Piaget and Vygotsky’s Learning Theories.

    Peer collaboration: When peers work together in cooperative tasks, the shared social interactions can be used in instructional fashion. Cooperative groups are most effective when students each have assigned responsibilities and all must attain competence before any are allowed to progress.

  2. Classical and Operant Conditioning.

    Extinction results if there is a decrease in frequency or strength of a learned response due to the failure to continue to pair the US and the CS. Extinction can also occur in operant conditioning. The key to operant conditioning is reinforcement.

  1. Psychological and Sociological Perspectives On Human Development and Behaviour.

    and socialisation for a child, provide support and direction for a teenager. In addition, at this stage they could start to rebel and can go through role confusion, conflict with the family or even break all ties together. In any society, the process of secondary socialisation is necessary because it

  2. Discriminative stimulus training and selective stimulus control in rats

    where a reinforcer was given after an average of 16 responses, and Extinction (EXT). VR schedule was chosen, as a variable ratio was thought to be the best for maintaining behaviour (Werzburg University). The aim of the experiment was to demonstrate stimulus discrimination and selective stimulus control in rats, and

  1. Language acquisition is a considerable achievement.

    vocabulary, and it has been suggested that parents who talk more have children whose language development is more advanced (Hoff-Ginsberg, 1991; Wells and Robinson, 1982). The way in which adults speak to children is also believed to be a factor in promoting language development; i.e., research findings indicate that the

  2. 'Describe the major phenomena of learning that are common to both Classical and Instrumental ...

    that had to be learned. These relationships formed the basis for Pavlov's idea of classical conditioning. The period of time over which this learning occurs is called the acquisition period. Pavlov also found that the dog that had been conditioned to salivate to the sound of the tone would also

  1. Universal Grammar In Second Language Acquisition: The nature of interlanguage representation.

    how they know that certain things are not possible, why grammars are of one sort rather than another, etc. These properties do not have to be learned; that is the claim. What is the motivation for UG in the first place?

  2. Describe the major phenomena of learning that are common to both classical and instrumental ...

    Pavlov believed classical conditioning was a way of extending the reflex concept into the sphere of learning. However recent research on classical conditioning has neutralised this theory to less of a reflex and more a response. Animal experts on instrumental conditioning also have important implications for human behaviour.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work