• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Comparing The Use of Imagery in Recreational And Competitive Sport.

Extracts from this document...


Comparing The Use of Imagery in Recreational And Competitive Sport ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to find at if there was a significant difference in the use of imagery in recreational and competitive sport. To do this we had a sample of 56 spo2004 students fill out a Sports Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ). In this sample we had 18 participants, 9male and 9 female, who considered themselves involved in sport for recreation and 36, 18 male and 18 female, who considered themselves at a competitive level (above school level). The highest mean result recovered was: 29.0 for competitive participants in the MGA subscale. The lowest mean result recovered was: 22.0 for the recreational participants in the CG subscale. We found that for three of the five subscales of imagery theory there were significant differences when we used a t-test: CG - 0.005, MS - 0.04 and MGM - 0.04. The full initial can be found in the appendices. INTRODUCTION Imagery can be "a process by which sensory experiences are stored in memory and internally recalled and performed in the absence of external stimuli" (Murphy, 1994). More simply, imagery is the notion of being able to recall an action previously made to your memory and re-perform the action. Being able to recall the action is beneficial in terms of improvement of performance as mistakes can be amended mentally prior to re-performance. Previous research on imagery has focused on the cognitive function and past studies have been limited in terms of sport by a failure to examine any changes in athletes imagery use during a competitive season (Hall et al, 1990). ...read more.


The SIQ was used in this study, with the intention of identifying the use of imagery. The hypotheses are: Experimental - There will be a significant difference in imagery used across each subscale of the SIQ between the recreational and competitive groups. Null - There will not be a significant difference in imagery use across each subscale of the SIQ between the recreational and competitive groups. METHOD Participants There were 54 sports studies students, aged between 19 and 23, were asked to complete the SIQ (Sports Imagery Questionnaire). 18 (9 male, 9 female) of these played sport at recreational level and 36 (18 male, 18 female) at competitive level - this being defined as competing above school level. All participants were asked if they wanted to take part and all agreed. No controls were instated on age, gender, occupation or fitness levels. Design The results taken from the sample were recorded on a questionnaire basis, as the 'Sport Imagery Questionnaire' (SIQ) was adopted. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions to be completed via self report with the participants assessing their own level of imagery contribution to the given situations on a scale from 1 to 7 for each of the 30 questions, 1 meaning rarely occurring up to 7 which means occurring often. The 30 questions on the SIQ were used to total up scores for each of the 5 subscales of imagery theory as described in the introduction. ...read more.


Internal imagery is through the eyes of the athlete - in a first person view, this would make it possible for a competitor of a higher level to see his/her mistakes from the three above mentioned subscales, then commit these mistakes to memory so as to be avoided in the future. This type of mental practice would be of more aid to the participant than the external imagery perspective, which is an outside view of performance. This does not necessarily mean that recreational participants use only the external perspective, only that with increased calibre of competition, the participants are more skilled and so get more from the mental imagery practice. In conclusion, athletes use imagery more at competition stage then at practice. This is because imagery is used to help keep an athlete focused on their event and in control of their arousal levels and emotions, which is why imagery is used just prior to competitions. The main goal of this study - to compare the use of imagery in competitive and recreational sport, was in part achieved with three of the subscales outlined in Paivios conceptual framework being shown to have significant differences for recreational and competitive participants. However, no controls were instated on gender, age or type of sport. Also, no distinction was made as to whether the participants were involved in team or individual sports, as it could be proved in further research that those partaking in team sports might just as easily use the external imagery perspective to improve technical skill as a team. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Sports Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Sports Science essays

  1. Nutritional analysis case study

    Methodological limitations The methodological limitations for the investigation came from a variety of sources. Firstly the food dairy given to the subject could show an incorrect representation of their diet due to either forgetting to record meals or making meals up.

  2. Sport Psychology. The athlete to be discussed in this paper found that imagery, ...

    Cox (2002) also states that although physically practicing skills is superior to mentally practicing them, mental practice is better than no practice. However, mental practice used in a complementary fashion with physical practice has been found to often yield the best results (Feltz, D.L.

  1. Sport industry.The sport industry is important to many people whop work in it and ...

    * Want a physical challenge Some people take part in sport because they want a physical challenge, sop they take part because some sports can give you the physical challenge you want. * Relieve stress A lot of people take part in sport because they are really stressed out and

  2. Discrimination and Gender Issues In Sport

    The fact is that women's football does not sell as well as men's, although women believe that if they were given the sponsorship money and the marketing opportunities that men receive then more and more people would watch and attend their games.

  1. Mechanisms of PETCO2 and O2 changes during exercise.

    During exercise testing when substituting PETCO2 and PETO2 for PaCO2 and PaO2 it is important to make sure that unless you are testing for responses to obesity or any other disease then testing healthy 'normal' subjects is required or you will get a lot of variability in the data.

  2. Factors Affecting Performance Age, gender and disability

    Iodine - used in hormone formation, Phosphorus - serves as the main regulator of energy metabolism in cells, helps the body absorb glucose and transport fatty acids and Potassium - helps keep normal water balance between the cells and body fluids, helps maintain normal blood pressure and helps enable the contraction in muscles.

  1. To what extent is sport like work?

    A second reading I took was by Rigauer; the concept was very similar to Brohm. Work has been divided into small tasks and so no one person carries out the tasks to complete an entire product. This is very similar to sports training.

  2. Biomechanical Analysis

    The Association football medical research programme: An audit of injuries in professional football. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 35, 43-47. Hewett, T.E., Ford, K.R. and Myer, G.D. (2006). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 2, A meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work