• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critically consider research into the affects of environmental stressors on aggressive behaviour.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Critically consider research into the affects of environmental stressors on aggressive behaviour. One type of environmental stressors is heat. Anderson suggested that the hotter regions of the world tend to have more aggression than cooler regions. Hotter years, seasons and days tend to have more incidents of violent crimes than cooler one. In support of this statement, Mcfalane found that more drivers honked their horns more in a response to a car blocking the road at a traffic light as temperature rose. Heat may have an affect on aggression because hot and uncomfortable conditions cause irritability that is prone to temper outbursts and negativity to others (Griffitt). However, Halpern found an inverted 'U' relationship between heat and aggression. This is where aggression goes up as the temperature does but then starts to fall at a certain point. Baron and Bell studied the effect of heat on aggression by seeing how willing participants were to give electric shocks. It was found that the temperature range between 33-35 degrees increased aggression. Extreme heat reduced aggression towards others, perhaps because they were stressed and did not want to add to that by causing conflict with other participants. ...read more.

Middle

The frustration was measured in terms of the length of time spent on the tasks. The results were that fewer errors were made on the word search in conditions 2 and 4 than in 1 and 3. This is because noise affected the concentration of the participants when played unpredictably in the random conditions. When the noise was fixed, the noise could be ignored or 'tuned out'. In relation to frustration, Donnerstein and Wilson 76 also showed that noise could cause aggression in a study where male participants were instructed to write an essay and was either favoured or criticised by a teacher. They were then allowed to give the teacher electric shocks whilst listening to one second bursts at either 65 decibels or at 95 decibels. It was found that more and the participants in the 95-decibel conditions administered longer shocks if they were criticised by the teacher. As the effect of a noisy environment should be compared with a quite one, another experiment was set up as before but with three different conditions whilst giving shocks. ...read more.

Conclusion

Moghaddam argued however that warmer temperatures mean more social contact, in result; people are more likely to dispute. This does not explain the increase in domestic violence in the summer as more family contact is made in winter. This shows that heat may not have affect on aggression. Baron and Bell also stated that there's also a greater correlation between the cold and aggression than with heat, which also objects the theory that heat affects aggression. There was also a contradiction to the theory that at a certain temperature, aggression falls (Halpern and Ransberger), which is known as the inverted 'U' idea. It is suggested that perhaps the heat caused people to avoid any more stress, explaining the fall of aggression at a certain temperature. Overall, it could be the negativity of the temperature that caused aggression (hot and cold) and increased social contact too but there may be confounding variables that could have caused any aggression, especially individual differences. With noise, Manstead, Glass and Donnerstein and Wilson all aggress that it can have negative affect on a persons reaction, including frustration and an increase in administering electric shocks. There can also be long-term damages to the physical response of children and quality of life (Evans). ?? ?? ?? ?? 10/05/02 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Social Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Social Psychology essays

  1. Discuss the statement that adolescence is a period of Storm and Stress.

    High conflict may make adolescence a difficult time for adolescents and their parents even if the conflict ultimately has benefits. "If adolescents have to adjust to so much potentially stressful changes, and at the same time pass through this stage of life with relative stability, as the empirical view indicates, how do they do it?"

  2. Psychological Perspectives of Aggression and Violence: A comparison of psychodynamic and behaviouris

    Alternatively, by releasing aggression through sublimation, in a socially acceptable activity such as a humour, arts or craft, sexual or aggressive energy can be expressed and gratified without the harmful effects of aggression itself.

  1. What is the evidence that aggression and violence are biologically determined?

    These are inhibitory responses, which can be associated with 'flight or fight' response (Reber, 1995). This may be explained by considering the differences in aggression when the HT is lesioned in different places (Carlson, 1998). For example, Toates, (1992) reported medial HT lesion heightens DA, yet a lateral lesion reduces PA.

  2. In half of the reported cases of domestic violence it was found that both ...

    The detour he deliberately took was a conscious decision and not provoked by the environment - hence nature's toll on his aggressive act. (3) Aggression is usually associated with negative aspects of the world. (3) This is not necessarily true, though. Negativity is but half of the nature of aggression.

  1. Personality and aggression

    Rule-Consciousness (expedient vs. rule-conscious) 7. Social boldness (shy vs. socially bold) 8. Sensitivity (utilitarian vs. sensitive) 9. Vigilance (trusting vs. vigilant) 10. Abstractedness (grounded vs. abstracted) 11. Privateness (forthright vs. private) 12. Apprehension (self-assured vs. apprehensive) 13. Openness to change (traditional vs. open to change) 14. Self-reliance (group orientated vs.

  2. juvenile conflict with law

    The second step shall be to discuss the important elements of the chosen definition. The important elements of the definition have already been enumerated above. It must be noted here that the definition does not prescribe the lower age limit of a Juvenile after attaining which his/her acts may term him/her as Juvenile Delinquent.

  1. Genetic and environmental influence in human development.…. Discuss.

    The degree of this impairment can vary enormously. It can cover a range between mild depression, which is barely noticeable, to severe depression, which is debilitating in the extreme, often leaving a person unable to do basic tasks such as dressing and washing. At worst it can lead to suicide.

  2. Are humans naturally aggressive or do we learn to be aggressive?

    Therefore this raises the question as to whether we can test these theories in humans. And, as Clare (1969) says â[Lorenz] failed to take account of other studies which did not, and indeed in some cases flatly contradict, his own claims...â (pg 156).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work