• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the evidence for a biological basis of learning and memory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discuss the evidence for a biological basis of learning and memory Discuss the evidence for a biological basis of learning and memory Investigating biological basis of learning area which has received a great amount of attention. This text will primarily address the neural regions involved in learning and memory which have been identified via studies of impaired memory, experimental lesions in non-humans and also through brain scans on individuals whilst carrying out task related to learning and memory. This text will also provide evidence for the suggestion that there is not simply one region involved in learning and memory but many. The first regions of the brain to be considered in the present context are the cortical regions, both posterior to the frontal lobes and anterior. ...read more.

Middle

This text will address a common example in this area known as patient HM. HM had a significant amount of his medial temporal lobe removed during an operation, including the hippocampus and the amygdala to alleviate the symptoms of epilepsy. Consequently, HM suffered from retrograde and anterograde amnesia (although the retrograde amnesia subsided). It was shown through studies by Baddeley (1997), that when asked to repeat a list of seven digits, he could do so, however, forgot them and knowledge of ever having completing the task when someone provided a distraction. Thus, providing a distinction between long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM). In addition to this, Brenda Milner (1965) provided a distinction between declarative (knowing that) ...read more.

Conclusion

Now, in considering the mediation of procedural memory and the case of patient HM's retention of procedural memory Grafton et al (1994) showed through a series of PET scans that during procedural learning, increased blood-flow went to the cerebellum and not the hippocampus, in turn implicating the cerebellum as a mediator of procedural memory. In addition to other structures in the brain, the amygdala is also implicated in learning and memory, more specifically when there is some emotional element attached (Schacter, 1989a), moreover, despite its position in the MTL the amygdala was not important for the formation of declarative memory. Ultimately, it appears that in dealing with information either temporarily or on a longer basis, or in dealing with memory that we are aware or not aware of, there are a number of interconnecting structures in the brain that play a role in learning and memory. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Memory loss- Outline and discuss the principle features of organic amnesia.

    They can quite easily have a conversation about events that may have occurred early in their life, whilst concealing their memory deficit. It may be that they develop some set responses to questions that they know they will be regularly asked, or some general conversation phrases that they can use

  2. Describe and discuss the neural basis of aphasia, as a syndrome associated with localized ...

    the mouth area of the primary motor cortex, stores programs of speech production and produces speech by activating the adjoining primary motor cortex. And, finally the arcuate fasciculus (7), a major tract that connects Wernicke's area with Broca's area, enables the Wernicke comprehension centre to activate speech programs in Broca's area.

  1. Have we learned anything new about the functions of the frontal lobe in the ...

    Both these articles examine primarily the prefrontal cortex. I have chosen the study by Duncan and Owen (2000) because it offers broad insight into what has been learnt over the last five years. The importance of this paper is that from it describes the problems and questions that researchers have

  2. Theories of human learning and memory.

    were flashed on the screen, 48 of these words were presented twice. Design The experiment used an indpendent measures design. The independent variable was which of the three conditions the participant was under; shallow, imagineability and semantic. The dependent variable was d prime, a measure of how precisely the participant could differentiate the original words from new words.

  1. Working memory serves more than one function. Discuss.

    He had no problems with language, memory or motor skills and had a verbal IQ of 132. He performed normally on a range of spatial tasks given to him including the Brooks spatial matrix, Shepard's image rotation, and locating states on a map of the U.S.

  2. “The hippocampus is the site of memory”. Critically discuss this statement.

    accepted modular approach to memory, which views different structures within the brain as highly specialised for different memory functions (Ramachandran, 1998). This knowledge has thus allowed researchers to appreciate that to declare the hippocampus as the site of memory greatly oversimplifies this higher cognitive function.

  1. What is U-shaped learning

    However, as Pinker & Prince (1988) argued, the network could not deal with the representation of forms where syllables are repeated, whereby its configuration allows it to reverse transformations (e.g. hit --> tih), which is something not found in any language.

  2. To what extent can biological investigations provide evidence to suggest language lateralisation correlates with ...

    The diagnosis of schizophrenia is made largely from clinical observations, often focusing of the patient ability to communicate via their use of language as a way in which to understand their grasp on ?reality?. Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, in that it has been found to affect most psychological

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work