• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the evidence for a biological basis of learning and memory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discuss the evidence for a biological basis of learning and memory Discuss the evidence for a biological basis of learning and memory Investigating biological basis of learning area which has received a great amount of attention. This text will primarily address the neural regions involved in learning and memory which have been identified via studies of impaired memory, experimental lesions in non-humans and also through brain scans on individuals whilst carrying out task related to learning and memory. This text will also provide evidence for the suggestion that there is not simply one region involved in learning and memory but many. The first regions of the brain to be considered in the present context are the cortical regions, both posterior to the frontal lobes and anterior. ...read more.

Middle

This text will address a common example in this area known as patient HM. HM had a significant amount of his medial temporal lobe removed during an operation, including the hippocampus and the amygdala to alleviate the symptoms of epilepsy. Consequently, HM suffered from retrograde and anterograde amnesia (although the retrograde amnesia subsided). It was shown through studies by Baddeley (1997), that when asked to repeat a list of seven digits, he could do so, however, forgot them and knowledge of ever having completing the task when someone provided a distraction. Thus, providing a distinction between long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM). In addition to this, Brenda Milner (1965) provided a distinction between declarative (knowing that) ...read more.

Conclusion

Now, in considering the mediation of procedural memory and the case of patient HM's retention of procedural memory Grafton et al (1994) showed through a series of PET scans that during procedural learning, increased blood-flow went to the cerebellum and not the hippocampus, in turn implicating the cerebellum as a mediator of procedural memory. In addition to other structures in the brain, the amygdala is also implicated in learning and memory, more specifically when there is some emotional element attached (Schacter, 1989a), moreover, despite its position in the MTL the amygdala was not important for the formation of declarative memory. Ultimately, it appears that in dealing with information either temporarily or on a longer basis, or in dealing with memory that we are aware or not aware of, there are a number of interconnecting structures in the brain that play a role in learning and memory. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Describe and discuss the neural basis of aphasia, as a syndrome associated with localized ...

    the mouth area of the primary motor cortex, stores programs of speech production and produces speech by activating the adjoining primary motor cortex. And, finally the arcuate fasciculus (7), a major tract that connects Wernicke's area with Broca's area, enables the Wernicke comprehension centre to activate speech programs in Broca's area.

  2. Working memory serves more than one function. Discuss.

    The results do support the idea that there are two separate sub-systems to the visuo-spatial sketchpad. One primarily concerned with the visual aspects of imagery, which are severely disrupted in Farah et al's patient therefore probably reliant on the occipital lobes.

  1. “The hippocampus is the site of memory”. Critically discuss this statement.

    accepted modular approach to memory, which views different structures within the brain as highly specialised for different memory functions (Ramachandran, 1998). This knowledge has thus allowed researchers to appreciate that to declare the hippocampus as the site of memory greatly oversimplifies this higher cognitive function.

  2. People often misremember, or forget completely. What can be deduced about the processes ...

    This is demonstrated by Loftus (1975) in an experiment which showed that new information is absorbed with memory representations which are already present. In this experiment Loftus gave misleading information to eye-witness subjects after they had been shown a film of a car accident.

  1. Memory loss- Outline and discuss the principle features of organic amnesia.

    Retrograde amnesia refers to the loss of memory for events before any brain damage was incurred. Anterograde amnesia is when a patient usually show normal memory for events before the incident responsible for the memory deficit, but has trouble when trying to recall information about events occurring after the incident.

  2. What is U-shaped learning

    Accordingly, the -ed connection is initially strong and the network has an initial tendency to activate the -ed connection. The network identifies this difference and the network's weights are adjusted to turn the suffix units off. Thus, when the network re-experiences a regular verb, the prior experience of the no-change

  1. Have we learned anything new about the functions of the frontal lobe in the ...

    The frontal lobe is a large and highly differentiated region of the brain that is reciprocally connected to other cortical and subcortical brain areas. The prefrontal cortex is the only neo cortical region that directly projects to the hypothalamus (Fuster, 1997).

  2. To what extent can biological investigations provide evidence to suggest language lateralisation correlates with ...

    aspects of well being, for instance the patientâs perception, cognition and social interpersonal functions (Titone, 2010). The causes of schizophrenia are controversial and difficult, if not impossible to determine, however it is believed to consist of a genetic and environmental component.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work