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University Degree: Genetics
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- Marked by Teachers essays 4
DNA stores genetic information, and RNA allows that information to be made use of in the cell. NUCLEOSIDES Both DNA and RNA contain nucleotides with similar components. In RNA the sugar components is ribose and deoxyribose in DNA. The prefix 'deoxy' means that an oxygen atom is missing from one of the ribose carbon atom. When a sugar bonds together with a nitrogen base, it creates a structure known as a nucleoside. There are five nitrogen bases found in RNA and DNA. These bases are divided into two categories based on their molecular structure 1. Purines (adenine & guanine) 2.
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and their harshest criticism. He addressed the concept of natural selection, in which life evolves through random mutations. Many concepts within evolutionary theory have been corroborated by scientific evidence. Scientists have been following DNA's footprints, which have been permanently engraved by concrete genetic research. Therefore, usually don't refute the basic tenets of evolution. There are some scientists and non-academics that do attempt to debunk the theory of evolution by purporting the notion of intelligent design (abbreviation: I.D.). Proponents of this spiritual concept look beyond the material world and assume that divine intervention has rendered the creation of life on earth.
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Adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs cytosine. The bases are held together by hydrogen bonds. Watson and Crick's model also suggested a way in which DNA could make copies of itself. First, the ladder untwists. Then the bases break apart. Since and adenine nucleotide can only bond with thymine, and guanine can only bond with cytosine, new units are assembled in precisely the same order as old. When the splitting and pairing processes are competed, two identical DNA molecules stand in the place of one. The process by which DNA makes copies of itself is called replication.
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A map of the 79 exons of dystrophin, spanning 2.4million bases and shows the 5 different promoters(C,M,P,S,G). Bars represent approximate relative positions of exons. (Ahn & Kunkel 1993) The Causes of DMD and BMD Almost 70% of cases of DMD, and more than 80% of cases of BMD are caused by gene deletion (Brown & Dickson 1994). Even though deletions can occur almost anywhere within the dystrophin gene, they are more likely to be found either around exons 45-55 (1200 kb from the 5' end of the gene) or close to the first 20 exons (500 kb from the 5' end)
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A Proposal to Investigate Influential Solutions to the Negative Effects of Genetically Modified Organisms on Human Health in America
After that, the criteria for assessing solutions and the methodology for the investigation will be discussed. Problem Definition Scientific researches up to now show that GMO causes unexpected problems and these can be listed as follows: > Antibiotic Resistance and Toxicity: GMO will aggravate medical treatments because DNA of GM products does not fully break down in human alimentary system so that viruses which causes illnesses such as flu and infection related diseases can take up genes and this opens up the possibility of the antibiotic resistance. Scientists are creating GM plants, which can produce their own pesticides.
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Furthermore since the completion of the Human Genome Project, scientists and researchers are still finding out new information about human genomes and the way genes have effect on the human body. Introduction: What is the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project was an idea first acknowledged by Robert Sinsheimer in the year 1985; he was based at the University of California. At first no one took his idea seriously since it was deemed rather difficult to comprehend and no one could predict the outcomes of the project.
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Questions for Cell Cycle 1) Briefly describe all phases of the cell cycle and tell what happens in each.
c. G2 phase: Increases protein preparing to replicate. b) M phase: this phase consist of nuclear division karyokinesis. This phase has been broken down into several distinct phases, sequentially known as (Krogh, 2009, p. 191). 1. Prophase: Chromosomes take shape: the two centrosomes begin to move toward the cellular poles, spouting microtubules as they go 2. Metaphase: Microtubules attach to sister chromatids and align them at the metaphase plate. 3. Anaphase: Sister chromatids are moved to opposite poles in the cell, each chromatid now becoming a full-fledged chromosome. 4. Telophase: Chromosomes decondense: nuclear envelopes form around the two separate complements of chromosomes.
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This made the identification of the fibres more difficult; however, figure 1 Top: cotton, bottom: wool 4 properties (such as how they are woven) and laboratory tests enable one to differentiate between them. Figure 1 shows a microscopic view of a transverse section of cotton (top) and wool (bottom). The diagrams show clearly the different structures and appearances between these two fibre types. Wool appears to be rougher on the walls and has a circular transverse section. Cotton has a smoother side with a curved transverse.
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The DNA in all cells is arranged in the form of a double helix, a structure that looks like a twisted ladder. If the rungs of this ladder break then the DNA will be unable to function properly. Not only that, but a sperm cell with high DNA fragmentation may not show any outwardly sign, i.e., neither its motility nor its morphology may be affected. (1) Thus, although several studies have shown that there is a high correlation between the degree of DNA fragmentation and the probability of normal pregnancy and childbirth, there are still some studies that say that although there is a correlation it is not strong enough to be used as a parameter in clinical practice.
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Molecular Genetic Testing is usually done for the genes, G6PC and SLC37A4 that result in the disease. (Bali D S and Chen Y T, 2008). GSD type II is due to the deficiency of activity of acid alpha-glucosidase that is caused by the mutation at 17q23. Muscle biopsy and activity of alpha-glucosidase is measured for diagnosis and imaging studies include echocardiography (Ibrahim J and McGovern M M, 2010). Sequence analysis and deletion/duplication analysis are molecular testing methods that help in analysis of genetic mutations. (Tinkle B T and Leslie N, 2010). GSD type III is due to mutation at AGL gene (Amylo-1, 6-glucosidase)
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Lymphoma and myeloma cancers are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Finally, the central nervous system cancers are cancers which begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. All cancers begin in cells, the body's basic unit of life. To understand cancer, it's helpful to know what happens when normal cells become cancer cells. The body is made up of many types of cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled way to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells.
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and are totally dependent on the biosynthetic machinery of a cell once infection has occurred. The influenza virus consists of varion particles which are spherical in shape. These varions range within 80 - 120 nanometers (nm) in diameter. Varions are polymorphic shaped due to lack of definition. Influenza has an enveloped form. This shape is derived from the lipid bilayer from the plasma membrane of a host cell. There are three types of influenza discovered and confirmed. Influenza C This is a common strain and causes mild illnesses in humans but not to the extent of causing an epidemic or pandemic.
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External Analysis The claims of Professor Karim and his Newcastle based research team triggered an immediate response in the press, offering comments of both support and of condemnation of his breakthrough claims. Dr Allan Pacey, senior Andrology lecturer at the University of Sheffield responded, "It is monumental if this has been done. I have read the paper they have published and I just did not think there was enough evidence as of yet to say the cells they have produced in the lab are genuine" (timesonline.co.uk).
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Whether a simple single celled bacterium or a hugely complex multi-cellular structure, either way gene processes and therefore DNA underlie all life processes and the various chain reactions involved with each of those processes. From within the perspective of human health there are certain base requirements that are required in order to promote the human life cycle; the human body requires nutrition and proteins to provide energy and cell structure; It also requires various chemicals and chemical processes to take place in order to support cellular respiration, growth and development and to fight off infections and viruses; the list is infinite and DNA is intrinsic to the success of each of these processes.
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He found that certain regions of DNA were highly variable between individuals (Gill et al. 1985, Jeffreys and Wilson 1985, Jeffreys et al. 1985b). Analysis of these polymorphic regions of DNA produced a "DNA fingerprint". 1 Today this is more commonly referred to as a DNA "profile." The DNA profiling technique was initially applied to paternity testing in the U.K and in 1985 at the request of the Home Office it was used to resolve an immigration case (Jeffreys et al.
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allele 9.3 at TH01 locus (Butler, 2005). Occurrence They are scattered throughout the genome and occur approx. every 10,000 nucleotides (Butler, 2005). Methods of Detection * Fluorescently labelled primers in PCR products are passed through Capillary Electrophoresis. As labelled PCR products migrate through the gel towards the anode on the laser they separate based on their size. Fluorescence is measured from exciting a dye molecule and detecting the light emitted from the excited dye. Automated and simple process, accurate but more expensive. Peaks seen in electropherograms allow for an easier interpretation of the data. E.g. ABI PRISM 3730xl has 96 capillaries and analyses 4000 a day.
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Discuss the likely advantages and problems arising from the introduction of genetically modified agricultural crops.
Genetically modified foods have been sold in the United States for a number of years and there is no evidence to show that these foods have harmed human health in any way. However the disadvantages of genetically modified technology is the same as it is with every new scientific technology, harmful side effects are inevitable and great care should be taken in its operation. There is no scientific evidence to show that genetically engineered foods are safe for human health.
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Another way in which many invertebrates reproduce is by fragmentation. This is when the parent body is broken up into several pieces, an each of the pieces are able to form complete adults. This is similar to the cultivation of cuttings in plants, which involves growing a fully mature plant from the piece of the 'parent' plant. Despite all of the different ways in which organisms can reproduce asexually, the fact that the genetic information comes from a single parent eliminates the possibility of variation and the offspring will have an identical genotype to the parent, barring the occurrence of a random mutation.
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Who were the Neanderthals? Discuss the importance of genetic evidence for understanding Neanderthal extinction
The Neanderthals gained a popular image of being more primitive than we see them today. The skulls were distinctive, being long and low-doomed like those of Homo erectus, but only moderately bro-ridged and of much larger cranial volume. So far as brain size is concerned, their mean volume was greater than that of modern humans, a fact which may reflect the need to control more musculature than we possess. The face was notable for its huge length and for its extreme forward ridge along the midline, from which both the orbits and the cheeks swept backward.
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The three major mammalian stem cells are embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts, adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues, and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord. These stem cells can undergo mitosis under laboratory conditions and transformed into specialized cells. Stem cells are said to have unlimited potency, indicating the capability to differentiate into any mature cell type. Current and Potential therapeutic uses of stem cells: Over the last 30 years bone marrow and more recently umbilical cord blood stem cells have been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukemia.
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In this way, DNA profiling can also reveal non paternity. A technique called electrophoresis is used to obtain DNA profiles, relying on sections of our DNA that are known as non-coding DNA (DNA that does not code for a protein). Electrophoresis sorts DNA strands according to length. The electrophoresis "gel" acts as a filter that sorts DNA strands. (1) The gel is created using powdered agarose, buffer, a microwave, a gel mold, and a gel comb to create the wells for the DNA sample.
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The Alu insertion is 300 base pairs in length and classified as short interspersed elements. There are between 500 and 2,000 restricted to the human genome. Alu DNA does not code for any protein, and is sometimes referred to as "selfish DNA," as it has no purpose other than to replicate itself. According to previous research, the frequency of having the Alu insertion is lowest in the African population, at 0.463. India has second lowest at 0.544, the Asian population follows with a frequency of 0.557, and the highest frequency of the Alu insert comes from Europe, at 0.559.
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In this article the way replication checkpoints participate in processing the mechanisms to stabilise, assist and organise the fork restart is shown, according to recent findings. Endogenous and exogenous events There are some locations in DNA called fragile sites, where the replication process slows down. The fork pausing in tRNA genes, for example, is associated with either genomic aberrations or DNA damage through mechanisms like uncoupling between strands or helicase being blocked. In case of the replisome remained associated with the fork, some proteins such as the Rrm3 DNA helicase remove the impediments and then the DNA synthesis is restarted.
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The Principles and Methodology of 2D Electrophoresis and its Application in Proteomics and Disease Diagnosis.
The main core of the technology and advances in the study of proteomics is due to the application of 2D electrophoresis and as it stands at the moment there is no alternative method available for resolving thousands of proteins in one separation technique. An Introduction to Two Dimensional Electrophoresis. The most widely used tool in proteomics used to analyse proteins is the technique of Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which is often abbreviated as either 2DE or 2-D Electrophoresis. This is a two step process technique which separates proteins in accordance to two independent properties, there isoelectric point (pI)
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