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University Degree: Genetics
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- Marked by Teachers essays 4
DNA stores genetic information, and RNA allows that information to be made use of in the cell. NUCLEOSIDES Both DNA and RNA contain nucleotides with similar components. In RNA the sugar components is ribose and deoxyribose in DNA. The prefix 'deoxy' means that an oxygen atom is missing from one of the ribose carbon atom. When a sugar bonds together with a nitrogen base, it creates a structure known as a nucleoside. There are five nitrogen bases found in RNA and DNA. These bases are divided into two categories based on their molecular structure 1. Purines (adenine & guanine) 2.
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Furthermore since the completion of the Human Genome Project, scientists and researchers are still finding out new information about human genomes and the way genes have effect on the human body. Introduction: What is the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project was an idea first acknowledged by Robert Sinsheimer in the year 1985; he was based at the University of California. At first no one took his idea seriously since it was deemed rather difficult to comprehend and no one could predict the outcomes of the project.
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Questions for Cell Cycle 1) Briefly describe all phases of the cell cycle and tell what happens in each.
c. G2 phase: Increases protein preparing to replicate. b) M phase: this phase consist of nuclear division karyokinesis. This phase has been broken down into several distinct phases, sequentially known as (Krogh, 2009, p. 191). 1. Prophase: Chromosomes take shape: the two centrosomes begin to move toward the cellular poles, spouting microtubules as they go 2. Metaphase: Microtubules attach to sister chromatids and align them at the metaphase plate. 3. Anaphase: Sister chromatids are moved to opposite poles in the cell, each chromatid now becoming a full-fledged chromosome. 4. Telophase: Chromosomes decondense: nuclear envelopes form around the two separate complements of chromosomes.
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Molecular Genetic Testing is usually done for the genes, G6PC and SLC37A4 that result in the disease. (Bali D S and Chen Y T, 2008). GSD type II is due to the deficiency of activity of acid alpha-glucosidase that is caused by the mutation at 17q23. Muscle biopsy and activity of alpha-glucosidase is measured for diagnosis and imaging studies include echocardiography (Ibrahim J and McGovern M M, 2010). Sequence analysis and deletion/duplication analysis are molecular testing methods that help in analysis of genetic mutations. (Tinkle B T and Leslie N, 2010). GSD type III is due to mutation at AGL gene (Amylo-1, 6-glucosidase)
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and are totally dependent on the biosynthetic machinery of a cell once infection has occurred. The influenza virus consists of varion particles which are spherical in shape. These varions range within 80 - 120 nanometers (nm) in diameter. Varions are polymorphic shaped due to lack of definition. Influenza has an enveloped form. This shape is derived from the lipid bilayer from the plasma membrane of a host cell. There are three types of influenza discovered and confirmed. Influenza C This is a common strain and causes mild illnesses in humans but not to the extent of causing an epidemic or pandemic.
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Whether a simple single celled bacterium or a hugely complex multi-cellular structure, either way gene processes and therefore DNA underlie all life processes and the various chain reactions involved with each of those processes. From within the perspective of human health there are certain base requirements that are required in order to promote the human life cycle; the human body requires nutrition and proteins to provide energy and cell structure; It also requires various chemicals and chemical processes to take place in order to support cellular respiration, growth and development and to fight off infections and viruses; the list is infinite and DNA is intrinsic to the success of each of these processes.
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He found that certain regions of DNA were highly variable between individuals (Gill et al. 1985, Jeffreys and Wilson 1985, Jeffreys et al. 1985b). Analysis of these polymorphic regions of DNA produced a "DNA fingerprint". 1 Today this is more commonly referred to as a DNA "profile." The DNA profiling technique was initially applied to paternity testing in the U.K and in 1985 at the request of the Home Office it was used to resolve an immigration case (Jeffreys et al.
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allele 9.3 at TH01 locus (Butler, 2005). Occurrence They are scattered throughout the genome and occur approx. every 10,000 nucleotides (Butler, 2005). Methods of Detection * Fluorescently labelled primers in PCR products are passed through Capillary Electrophoresis. As labelled PCR products migrate through the gel towards the anode on the laser they separate based on their size. Fluorescence is measured from exciting a dye molecule and detecting the light emitted from the excited dye. Automated and simple process, accurate but more expensive. Peaks seen in electropherograms allow for an easier interpretation of the data. E.g. ABI PRISM 3730xl has 96 capillaries and analyses 4000 a day.
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Discuss the likely advantages and problems arising from the introduction of genetically modified agricultural crops.
Genetically modified foods have been sold in the United States for a number of years and there is no evidence to show that these foods have harmed human health in any way. However the disadvantages of genetically modified technology is the same as it is with every new scientific technology, harmful side effects are inevitable and great care should be taken in its operation. There is no scientific evidence to show that genetically engineered foods are safe for human health.
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Another way in which many invertebrates reproduce is by fragmentation. This is when the parent body is broken up into several pieces, an each of the pieces are able to form complete adults. This is similar to the cultivation of cuttings in plants, which involves growing a fully mature plant from the piece of the 'parent' plant. Despite all of the different ways in which organisms can reproduce asexually, the fact that the genetic information comes from a single parent eliminates the possibility of variation and the offspring will have an identical genotype to the parent, barring the occurrence of a random mutation.
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Explain How The Development of Electrophoretic Techniques has played a key role in (a) Our Understanding of Molecular Biology and (b) The Diagnosis of Disease.
The students name was Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius and it was then he published his thesis "Moving Boundary Electrophoresis" 2. He performed his experiments in a quartz U-tube using ultra violet light to photograph protein boundaries. However boundaries were often blurred in appearance caused by the heat in the solution, therefore results were not entirely accurate. It was not until 1937 he invented an electrophoresis apparatus which made it possible to obtain a much higher resolution and separation of charged molecules.
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The Genetic code has to undergo DNA replication because this is essential for the growth and reproduction of organisms. DNA replication occurs by a semi-conservative mechanism. When DNA replicates the double helix uncoils into two separate strands, as hydrogen bonds between the polynucleotide strands are broken. Each of the strands acts as a template for the formation of a new complementary strand. Nucleotides bind to each template strand by specific base pairing and they are joined together by the enzyme DNA polymerase to form a polynucleotide strand.
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The resulting four lanes on the sequencing gel - G, A+G, C+T, C - enables the sequence to be determined. The Sanger method relies on the principle of enzymic chain termination and is the more common method for two main reasons. The most important is that it is more easily automated, and this is essential to speed up the process. The second is that the chemicals used in the Maxam method are toxic and therefore hazardous to the health of the researchers. The first step in the Sanger method is production of purified single-stranded DNA for use as a template.
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According to Hames and Hooper (2000) they are spherical (cocci), rodlike (bacilli) or helically coiled (spirilla). Prokaryotes, like all cells, are bound by a plasma membrane that completely encloses the cytosol and separates the cell from the external environment. Prokaryotes have a plasma membrane that can be folded to form mesosome which is where DNA replication and enzymatic reactions can occur. Damage can occur to all cellular molecules. If RNA or proteins are damaged, they can be degraded and newly synthesised by the mechanisms transcription and translation using DNA as a template, whereas DNA needs to be repaired when damaged.
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Discuss The Likely Advantages And Problems Arising From The Introduction Of Genetically Modified Agricultural Crops (standard essay style) The process of genetically modifying crops involves the transfer of selected genes
There may also be the possibility of producing foods with less fat to tackle obesity. The use of GM crops can also be of economic advantage because certain plants have certain soil and climate requirements which limits where each crop can be grown. By genetically modifying certain characteristics it would mean that they are more tolerant in conditions they usually wouldn't be in. the result is that more plants can be grown in more areas and it is also not restricted by times of the year.
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Advances in this process include the use of thermostable DNA polymerases, which resist denaturation at high temperatures and so an initial aliquot if polymerase can last for the successive cycles needed in the PCR as well as the development of thermal cyclers or PCR machines, which rapidly change temperature as needed, in an automated programmable manner, resulting in modern PCR. The theory of PCR The DNA to be amplified, the template DNA, is denatured to separate each strand by heating at a temperature between 90-95�C and this separation of the duplex allows the chosen oligonucleotide primers to anneal to their specific homologue within the template sequence.
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The use of "DNA" in police investigations IntroductionThe issue of whether DNA should be used in police investigations is widely debated in the community
This discovery caught the imagination of the forensic science community; for it has long been the ambition of forensic scientists to link with certainty the origin of biological evidence such as blood, semen, hair of tissues to a single individual. These days in terms of law enforcement DNA plays a major role. (Saferstein, 2001) It has been argued that the DNA is inaccurate and hence unreliable. In their opinion crime scene may become contaminated therefore the use of DNA evidence from that particular crime scene as unreliable .Those who make these claims have some validity in their claim.
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Genetics and DNA scientific study is catalysing progress in every other biological field, physiology, evolutionary biology, ecology and behaviour. The impact of genetics research and development has been massive and therefore major ethical issues come with it. We can create new organisms and understand the patterns of diseases but with that power comes responsibility and risk. The knowledge of DNA and genetics is adding immensely to the understanding of human health including the prevention and treatment of illnesses. The Human Genome Project was completed this year; it has enabled all the genes in human DNA to be identified and this information to be stored in public databases.
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Therapeutic cloning has not yet been accomplished in the laboratory or in the clinic. However, a general approach by which it might be done in the future has been mapped out. Peoples fears have been further awakened as a high percentage of cloned monkeys that look healthy are really a "gallery of horrors" deep within. This could mean that there is something unique about primate eggs that will make cloning monkeys or humans more difficult than cloning other animals. Therefore, monkey cloning is no encouragement to further pursue human cloning.
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The New York City medical examiner's office analyzed these DNA samples to compile a genetic fingerprint that was compared with the body parts found from the ruins. (www.nationalgeographic.com - 2001) It was important to collect the samples so that the victims identified could have their remains returned to their families for a funeral. New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani said: "DNA evidence offers us the best opportunity to help families find their loved ones." (www.nationalgeographic.com - 2001) Genetics have also been used in Law to help solve many crimes, including murder, rape, etc.
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Identification deals with the process of allocating a new specimen (an 'unknown') to the correct and previously described taxon. Importance : Identification is a very important practical activity, which will concern most microbiologists from time to time. Large areas of microbiological work are heavily dependent on good identification. Some areas, such as hospital microbiology, are almost entirely concerned with identification and are collectively referred to as diagnostic microbiology. It may be emphasized that numerous kinds of microbiological work........ * By sequencing a number of rRNA genes and comparing them with genes in the databases, a picture of the composition of the microbial population began to emerge.
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This experiment can be performed with rabbits in the following way. Blood sample taken from human Blood cells separated from plasma Serum from human is injected into the rabbit, and rabbit subsequently develops antibodies to human serum A blood sample is the taken from the rabbit and separated to produce sensitised rabbit serum This sensitised rabbit serum is then reacted with serum from other animals The level of precipitation is recorded. A large amount of precipitate indicates that the two species are closely related, whereas a small amount suggests greater divergence in both time and relatedness.
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During mitosis, or M phase, cell division occurs and segregates one set of diploid chromosomes to each daughter cell. The two gap phases (G1 and G2) serve as more than simple time delays to allow cell growth. They also provide time for the cell to monitor the internal and external environment to ensure that conditions are suitable and preparations are complete before the cell commits itself to the major upheavals of S phase and mitosis. If extracellular conditions are unfavourable, for example, cells delay their progress through G1 and may even enter a specialized resting state known as G0 in which they can remain before resuming proliferation.
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The activity of the Ntr regulon alters as a result of the nitrogen supply which is available to bacteria. The genes that are encoded by the Ntr regulon are affected by the supply of ammonia that the bacterial cell has. In this way, the activation of these genes within the Ntr regulon are regulated by the supply of ammonia (and therefore acts to sense these levels of ammonia). There are many different nitrogen sources, organic and inorganic, that can be taken up by bacteria, including nitrate, nitrogen gas or urea, but whatever the source, it will be converted to ammonia.
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These are repeated sequences which are 9-24 base pairs in length. These highly polymorphic minisatellites share a common core sequence and appear near talomeres.(6) Microsatellites and Tetranucleotide / trinucleotide (STR's) repeats are other markers which can be used. The tandemly repeated consensus sequences are only two to five bases long. Compared to minisatellites, the shorter repeat lengths of STR markers make them more compatible with use of the Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is a way to amplify minute amounts of DNA. This advantage has made them popular and useful markers for recent genetic maps.(3), (2).
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