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University Degree: Genetics
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- Marked by Teachers essays 4
Adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs cytosine. The bases are held together by hydrogen bonds. Watson and Crick's model also suggested a way in which DNA could make copies of itself. First, the ladder untwists. Then the bases break apart. Since and adenine nucleotide can only bond with thymine, and guanine can only bond with cytosine, new units are assembled in precisely the same order as old. When the splitting and pairing processes are competed, two identical DNA molecules stand in the place of one. The process by which DNA makes copies of itself is called replication.
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Lymphoma and myeloma cancers are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Finally, the central nervous system cancers are cancers which begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. All cancers begin in cells, the body's basic unit of life. To understand cancer, it's helpful to know what happens when normal cells become cancer cells. The body is made up of many types of cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled way to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells.
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External Analysis The claims of Professor Karim and his Newcastle based research team triggered an immediate response in the press, offering comments of both support and of condemnation of his breakthrough claims. Dr Allan Pacey, senior Andrology lecturer at the University of Sheffield responded, "It is monumental if this has been done. I have read the paper they have published and I just did not think there was enough evidence as of yet to say the cells they have produced in the lab are genuine" (timesonline.co.uk).
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Who were the Neanderthals? Discuss the importance of genetic evidence for understanding Neanderthal extinction
The Neanderthals gained a popular image of being more primitive than we see them today. The skulls were distinctive, being long and low-doomed like those of Homo erectus, but only moderately bro-ridged and of much larger cranial volume. So far as brain size is concerned, their mean volume was greater than that of modern humans, a fact which may reflect the need to control more musculature than we possess. The face was notable for its huge length and for its extreme forward ridge along the midline, from which both the orbits and the cheeks swept backward.
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The Alu insertion is 300 base pairs in length and classified as short interspersed elements. There are between 500 and 2,000 restricted to the human genome. Alu DNA does not code for any protein, and is sometimes referred to as "selfish DNA," as it has no purpose other than to replicate itself. According to previous research, the frequency of having the Alu insertion is lowest in the African population, at 0.463. India has second lowest at 0.544, the Asian population follows with a frequency of 0.557, and the highest frequency of the Alu insert comes from Europe, at 0.559.
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The Principles and Methodology of 2D Electrophoresis and its Application in Proteomics and Disease Diagnosis.
The main core of the technology and advances in the study of proteomics is due to the application of 2D electrophoresis and as it stands at the moment there is no alternative method available for resolving thousands of proteins in one separation technique. An Introduction to Two Dimensional Electrophoresis. The most widely used tool in proteomics used to analyse proteins is the technique of Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which is often abbreviated as either 2DE or 2-D Electrophoresis. This is a two step process technique which separates proteins in accordance to two independent properties, there isoelectric point (pI)
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Objectives:To amplify a 500bp fragment of lambda DNA. To understand the principles and the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction. To analyses the PCR by using Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.
Volume not withstanding, the critical requirement is to maintain constant final concentrations of the reagents. The two strands of the DNA are separated by heating and short sequences of a single DNA strand (primers) are added, together with a supply of free nucleotides and DNA polymerase obtained from a bacterial that can withstand extreme heat. For instance, a special DNA polymerase-Taq polymerase isolated from Thermus aquaticus which is living in hot springs can withstand high temperature used to denature the template DNA.
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Imagine that you are a behaviour geneticist interested in the heritability of personality attributes. Describe how you would go about studying the genetic basis of personality
This phenomenon also holds true for the biological approach. Behavioral genetics, essentially, attempts at understanding behavior (personality traits) from a genetic (biological) mechanism. Behavioral genetics is a fundamental theory of understanding the origins of personality and cannot be disregarded. However, one should be thorough and therefore all theories should be applied when trying to understand a particular personality or behavior. I strongly believe that genetics plays a very large and fundamental role in behavior. The psychological triad: thinking, feeling and behaving are all products of our biological features. Theoretically, our cerebrum is the organ that performs those functions.
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I opened the door and the smoke started withdrawing, then there was a big explosion, I was thrown against the wall. I was trying to find my way but it was hard to see anything. Someone picked me up and took me outside, it was a firemen. The Crime Scene 1. The smell of an accelerant is obvious when you become close in proximity with the staff room. 2. A foot print has been left outside the area of the staff room in soil; it shows what direction they left.
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The existence of RNA was initially supported by evidence collected from prokaryotes and published during the early 1960's. Data published in two papers 1956 and 1958 by E.Volkin et al., reported on the use of 32P to follow newly synthesized RNA after bacteriophage infection in E.coli. It was found that the base composition of the newly formed radiolabelled product differed to the bacterial DNA but was similar to the phage DNA and was a precursor to the synthesis of proteins.
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I will illustrate the problems that have surfaced and discuss some measures that may help solve them. Up until now, police have used methods of blood and protein typing, footprints, drug and firearm matching and eyewitness identification to place a suspect at the scene of a crime. Genetic fingerprinting technology has been applied to evidence from many crime scenes and the results have often shown previous technology to be frighteningly unreliable. In a study of 28 cases commissioned by the National Institute of Justice (Conners, Lundregan, Miller, McEwan, 1996)
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They are extremely complex macromolecules, and each type of protein has its own individual three dimensional shape, but are all made up of the same 20 amino acids in different arrangements. Amino acids are linked together in an unbranched chain by peptide bonds to form polypeptides. This bond is formed when the amino group of one amino acid is next to the carboxyl group of another and an enzyme is introduced to cause a condensation, or dehydration, reaction, where a molecule of water is lost between the two molecules.
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The first method of purification that I shall describe is also one of the simplest. It relies on the physical properties of the protein itself by making the desired protein precipitate out whilst keeping other proteins and 'background' matter in solution. Protein solubility can change as ionic strength of the solution changes and generally they have different solubility curves, but a general trend is that protein solubility decreases as ionic strength of the solution increases. So if you have a mixture of proteins then carefully increasing the salt content can precipitate out some proteins but not others if they react in different ways to the change in salt content.
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Also another is the funding and cost of such research and how it will affect the people and their taxes. Not only does it raise legal and financial problems but it also creates moral questions; is the destruction of an embryo considered to be murder? Are embryos even considered to be human? A proposal to their solutions would be to limit federal funding to reduce the amount of money spent from the people's taxes. Restrictions and guidelines need to be made on what kinds of embryos are allowed for stem cell research.
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In our society today, there are many issues that stir up heated debate. The continuing debate over stem cell research and human cloning over the last few years in particular is no exception.
There are skin cells, which gives rise to different types of skin cells, etc. Stem cells can be extracted from adults, children, and embryos. Embryonic stem cells are harvested from early human embryos. The embryos usually come from in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) clinics and are left over from infertility treatments. People arguing against embryonic stem cell research claim that other methods of harvesting stem cells where embryos are not destroyed can be just as effective at producing stem cells, or at least should be fully explored as an option first. These other methods include harvesting stem cells from cord blood taken from the umbilical cords of newborns and from bone marrow and other adult tissue.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using DNA sequence data for assessing relationships between the major groups of land plants?
Dawson initiated a more important question regarding the "roots" of relationships between plants in 1859. Dawson described several early Devonian plants from Canada and Scotland and interpreted these early fossils as primitive vascular plants showing a degree of morphological simplicity unknown in extant groups. This began to give hints at the evolution of land plants, but the first detailed evidence was provided by Bowers' work on the anatomy of primitive Pteridophytes in Rhynie Chert in 1920. This bridged the diversity between the bryophytes and the Tracheophytes and gave rise to the creation of a monophyletic hypothesis for the evolution of land plants.
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Bernard are incredibly different phenotypically but are still the same species. Darwin honed his ideas over six editions of On the Origin of species and the book became the foundation for all future studies of evolution and natural selection. Darwin?s theory was not alone. Arthur Wallace independently wrote a paper that included an explanation on natural selection that was presented together with Darwin?s ideas in 1858 and Jean Baptiste La Marck, James Hutton and Charles Lyell had all quite recently posed theories on adaptation and gradualism (Hide, G.
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