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University Degree: Genetics

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  1. Explain How The Development of Electrophoretic Techniques has played a key role in (a) Our Understanding of Molecular Biology and (b) The Diagnosis of Disease.

    The students name was Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius and it was then he published his thesis "Moving Boundary Electrophoresis" 2. He performed his experiments in a quartz U-tube using ultra violet light to photograph protein boundaries. However boundaries were often blurred in appearance caused by the heat in the solution, therefore results were not entirely accurate. It was not until 1937 he invented an electrophoresis apparatus which made it possible to obtain a much higher resolution and separation of charged molecules.

    • Word count: 1988
  2. therapeutic cloning

    The new tissue or organ would have the sick person's original DNA; the patient would not need to have immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their life, these drugs are normally used to help the patients after the transplant. Also there will be no danger of organ rejection. The process of therapeutic cloning begins when an individual requires a new tissue or organ; a cell is then extracted from the patient. A woman's ovum is then used in the process; the DNA from the ovum has then been extracted. Once the DNA has been extracted, a pre-embryo has been created.

    • Word count: 814

    I also wish to express my grateful to my esteemed faculty Prof.S.K. Jain, Dr M.Z. Abdin, Dr.Fahrat Afrin, Dr. Depsika Pande, Dr. Farha Anjum and Dr. Sandeep Das for their valuable suggestions, support and encouragement. I am highly indebted to Mr.Mukesh Jain for inculcating me all those qualities, which make him so meticulous, and for training my work and me untiring at each and every stage got an appreciable order due to helping hands provided by Mr.Mukesh jain. And he deserves special thanks for helping a great deal in my concluding Experiment.

    • Word count: 5290
  4. Objectives:To amplify a 500bp fragment of lambda DNA. To understand the principles and the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction. To analyses the PCR by using Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.

    Volume not withstanding, the critical requirement is to maintain constant final concentrations of the reagents. The two strands of the DNA are separated by heating and short sequences of a single DNA strand (primers) are added, together with a supply of free nucleotides and DNA polymerase obtained from a bacterial that can withstand extreme heat. For instance, a special DNA polymerase-Taq polymerase isolated from Thermus aquaticus which is living in hot springs can withstand high temperature used to denature the template DNA.

    • Word count: 2153
  5. Human Cloning: Is making people wrong?The ultimate bit of genetic engineering would be cloning people

    Cloning is a sexual reproduction and it produces individuals who are genetically identical to someone who already exists. It's done by removing the DNA from the nucleus of an egg cell taken from the mother and then replacing this genetic material with the DNA taken from one of the father's cells - perhaps a skin cell. Creating complete people like this would lead to even more ethical problems than therapeutic cloning in which scientists create human embryos through cloning and extract stem cells that can transform themselves into other types of cell with the aim of using them to treat illness.

    • Word count: 549
  6. The Genetic Code

    The Genetic code has to undergo DNA replication because this is essential for the growth and reproduction of organisms. DNA replication occurs by a semi-conservative mechanism. When DNA replicates the double helix uncoils into two separate strands, as hydrogen bonds between the polynucleotide strands are broken. Each of the strands acts as a template for the formation of a new complementary strand. Nucleotides bind to each template strand by specific base pairing and they are joined together by the enzyme DNA polymerase to form a polynucleotide strand.

    • Word count: 1657
  7. Imagine that you are a behaviour geneticist interested in the heritability of personality attributes. Describe how you would go about studying the genetic basis of personality

    This phenomenon also holds true for the biological approach. Behavioral genetics, essentially, attempts at understanding behavior (personality traits) from a genetic (biological) mechanism. Behavioral genetics is a fundamental theory of understanding the origins of personality and cannot be disregarded. However, one should be thorough and therefore all theories should be applied when trying to understand a particular personality or behavior. I strongly believe that genetics plays a very large and fundamental role in behavior. The psychological triad: thinking, feeling and behaving are all products of our biological features. Theoretically, our cerebrum is the organ that performs those functions.

    • Word count: 2111
  8. How is DNA Sequencing done?

    The resulting four lanes on the sequencing gel - G, A+G, C+T, C - enables the sequence to be determined. The Sanger method relies on the principle of enzymic chain termination and is the more common method for two main reasons. The most important is that it is more easily automated, and this is essential to speed up the process. The second is that the chemicals used in the Maxam method are toxic and therefore hazardous to the health of the researchers. The first step in the Sanger method is production of purified single-stranded DNA for use as a template.

    • Word count: 1641
  9. In heart diseases, time only makes a physical injury worse. If starved for oxygen

    In spite of the encouraging results of the experimental surgeries, noone knows how the treatment works. How the stem cells renew the tissue or the side-effects, are unkown. There are many experiments done on this issue: 1)mice who -deliberately caused to- suffer heart attack, cured by transmission of bone marrow rich in stem cells. 2)In Gremany, the hearts of 60 patients, who suffered heart diseases, were transmitted bone marrows by catheters; their hearts pumped more blood, strongly. 3)In Pittsburgh University, 100 patients' hearts pumped more blood after stem cell treatment, without any side-effects. 4)In Equador Republic, 10 patients with were ejected stem cells obtained from the fetus.

    • Word count: 768
  10. Initial Crime Scene Reports

    I opened the door and the smoke started withdrawing, then there was a big explosion, I was thrown against the wall. I was trying to find my way but it was hard to see anything. Someone picked me up and took me outside, it was a firemen. The Crime Scene 1. The smell of an accelerant is obvious when you become close in proximity with the staff room. 2. A foot print has been left outside the area of the staff room in soil; it shows what direction they left.

    • Word count: 2442
  11. Describe how DNA damage induced by UV radiation is repaired by prokaryotes

    According to Hames and Hooper (2000) they are spherical (cocci), rodlike (bacilli) or helically coiled (spirilla). Prokaryotes, like all cells, are bound by a plasma membrane that completely encloses the cytosol and separates the cell from the external environment. Prokaryotes have a plasma membrane that can be folded to form mesosome which is where DNA replication and enzymatic reactions can occur. Damage can occur to all cellular molecules. If RNA or proteins are damaged, they can be degraded and newly synthesised by the mechanisms transcription and translation using DNA as a template, whereas DNA needs to be repaired when damaged.

    • Word count: 1239
  12. Discuss The Likely Advantages And Problems Arising From The Introduction Of Genetically Modified Agricultural Crops (standard essay style) The process of genetically modifying crops involves the transfer of selected genes

    There may also be the possibility of producing foods with less fat to tackle obesity. The use of GM crops can also be of economic advantage because certain plants have certain soil and climate requirements which limits where each crop can be grown. By genetically modifying certain characteristics it would mean that they are more tolerant in conditions they usually wouldn't be in. the result is that more plants can be grown in more areas and it is also not restricted by times of the year.

    • Word count: 1171
  13. Plan of essay - Logical and clear orderIntroductionSection 1 - Success of DNA in police investigationsSection 2 - DNA and its limitations

    What will be the scope of answer? - Arguing the case for the use of DNA in police investigations since the aim is to encourage the use of DNA in police investigations. Possible Hypothesis - The use of DNA evidence is an important and necessary tool to fight crime in the modern world Overall the trend for each paragraph will be POINT QUOTE COMMENT. Section 1 - Success of DNA in police investigations Since all topics in section are linked that is they have similar role to play in the sense that they will support the use of DNA in police investigations means that they will put in section 1.

    • Word count: 570
  14. Public awareness of Cloning

    Below are diagrams of those successful mammals to be cloned. Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Diagram 4 Dolly, the first cloned Cc, the first cloned Andi, the first cloned Sheep kitten monkey Diagram 5 Dolly and her surrogate mother There had been theories that mice and humans are in common and that both of not clone able, which simply means they cannot be cloned. But after the success of cloning mice and sheep and other species of mammals, there is hope yet for human DNA cloning.

    • Word count: 3668
  15. " To clone, or not to clone that is the question"

    This technique is mostly used to develop food crops that grow faster and more resistant to environmental hazards than regular crops. Secondly we have reproductive cloning which is used to generate a new animal or organism that has the identical DNA of a current or previously existing animal. This goal is achieved through a process called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT) where scientists excerpt genetic material out of a healthy nucleus of an adult donor cell and replace it with the DNA of the object which is to be reproduced.

    • Word count: 568
  16. Blood Factors and the DNA Fingerprint.

    AB child, their A and O to produce an AO child(called A), or their B and O to produce a BO(called B). In paternity cases, studies of family history can often reveal if an individual is AA-receiving an A type from both parents, or an AO-receiving an A from one and an O from the other. But for the practical purpose of receiving or donating blood, it doesn't make a difference and it isn't possible to separate AO and AA from one another in any sort of testing.

    • Word count: 3667
  17. DNA amplification by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Advances in this process include the use of thermostable DNA polymerases, which resist denaturation at high temperatures and so an initial aliquot if polymerase can last for the successive cycles needed in the PCR as well as the development of thermal cyclers or PCR machines, which rapidly change temperature as needed, in an automated programmable manner, resulting in modern PCR. The theory of PCR The DNA to be amplified, the template DNA, is denatured to separate each strand by heating at a temperature between 90-95�C and this separation of the duplex allows the chosen oligonucleotide primers to anneal to their specific homologue within the template sequence.

    • Word count: 1288
  18. Playing God Will Not Help Us Grow - clonning.

    I will support my argument through the use of: books on ethics, past researches and current events. II. Ethical arguments against cloning "Cloning is the creation of a being from the cell of another that produces a duplicate being with similar characteristics. The news of a human embryo being cloned for stem cell research and the surrounding controversy has prompted my examination of the subject." (Bob Levin, Authors Notes) Much like religion, ethics is an aspect of life that a person is pretty much brought up with, yet there are many ethical matters that a person must learn as they study to become a professional in any given field and especially in the scientific field.

    • Word count: 3443
  19. The use of "DNA" in police investigations IntroductionThe issue of whether DNA should be used in police investigations is widely debated in the community

    This discovery caught the imagination of the forensic science community; for it has long been the ambition of forensic scientists to link with certainty the origin of biological evidence such as blood, semen, hair of tissues to a single individual. These days in terms of law enforcement DNA plays a major role. (Saferstein, 2001) It has been argued that the DNA is inaccurate and hence unreliable. In their opinion crime scene may become contaminated therefore the use of DNA evidence from that particular crime scene as unreliable .Those who make these claims have some validity in their claim.

    • Word count: 1872
  20. Discuss the role of genetics in modern civilisation.

    Genetics and DNA scientific study is catalysing progress in every other biological field, physiology, evolutionary biology, ecology and behaviour. The impact of genetics research and development has been massive and therefore major ethical issues come with it. We can create new organisms and understand the patterns of diseases but with that power comes responsibility and risk. The knowledge of DNA and genetics is adding immensely to the understanding of human health including the prevention and treatment of illnesses. The Human Genome Project was completed this year; it has enabled all the genes in human DNA to be identified and this information to be stored in public databases.

    • Word count: 1067
  21. Human Cloning?

    Therapeutic cloning has not yet been accomplished in the laboratory or in the clinic. However, a general approach by which it might be done in the future has been mapped out. Peoples fears have been further awakened as a high percentage of cloned monkeys that look healthy are really a "gallery of horrors" deep within. This could mean that there is something unique about primate eggs that will make cloning monkeys or humans more difficult than cloning other animals. Therefore, monkey cloning is no encouragement to further pursue human cloning.

    • Word count: 1502
  22. The current applications of genetic fingerprinting and how they have helped society

    The New York City medical examiner's office analyzed these DNA samples to compile a genetic fingerprint that was compared with the body parts found from the ruins. (www.nationalgeographic.com - 2001) It was important to collect the samples so that the victims identified could have their remains returned to their families for a funeral. New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani said: "DNA evidence offers us the best opportunity to help families find their loved ones." (www.nationalgeographic.com - 2001) Genetics have also been used in Law to help solve many crimes, including murder, rape, etc.

    • Word count: 1541
  23. Transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    The existence of RNA was initially supported by evidence collected from prokaryotes and published during the early 1960's. Data published in two papers 1956 and 1958 by E.Volkin et al., reported on the use of 32P to follow newly synthesized RNA after bacteriophage infection in E.coli. It was found that the base composition of the newly formed radiolabelled product differed to the bacterial DNA but was similar to the phage DNA and was a precursor to the synthesis of proteins.

    • Word count: 2185
  24. Comparison of Traditional and Modern Approaches to the Identification of Bacteria.

    Identification deals with the process of allocating a new specimen (an 'unknown') to the correct and previously described taxon. Importance : Identification is a very important practical activity, which will concern most microbiologists from time to time. Large areas of microbiological work are heavily dependent on good identification. Some areas, such as hospital microbiology, are almost entirely concerned with identification and are collectively referred to as diagnostic microbiology. It may be emphasized that numerous kinds of microbiological work........ * By sequencing a number of rRNA genes and comparing them with genes in the databases, a picture of the composition of the microbial population began to emerge.

    • Word count: 1859
  25. How has molecular evidence altered our views on human / ape relationships?

    This experiment can be performed with rabbits in the following way. Blood sample taken from human Blood cells separated from plasma Serum from human is injected into the rabbit, and rabbit subsequently develops antibodies to human serum A blood sample is the taken from the rabbit and separated to produce sensitised rabbit serum This sensitised rabbit serum is then reacted with serum from other animals The level of precipitation is recorded. A large amount of precipitate indicates that the two species are closely related, whereas a small amount suggests greater divergence in both time and relatedness.

    • Word count: 1981

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