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University Degree: Genetics

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  1. Forensic Science and DNA in Crime Solving

    "is the genetic material found in the body's nucleic cells (those with a nucleus) such as white blood cells, semen, bone, skin, and hair"(Wells). Aside from the usual blood and semen that can be found at a crime scene and tested, DNA can be found on items that most criminals would never even think of. Cigarette butts, cups, beer bottles, envelopes, lipsticks or chap sticks, and even tissues can be used to obtain a DNA sample. DNA profiling was first introduced to US criminal court during a rape case in Florida in 1987. Tommy Lee Andrews, a factory worker, was convicted of a series of rapes based on DNA evidence (Wells).

    • Word count: 3145
  2. Ethics and Morality re: Stem Cell Research.

    We watched her undergo numerous surgeries and treatments only to lose her battle just before her sixth birthday. The family held onto whatever hope that was out there, submitting their child to the rigors of two bone marrow transplants that ultimately failed. I know that this family would have gone anywhere, spent their last dollar and tried whatever new treatment that became available. And for them the technology of stem cell therapy was just too new and not applicable yet, to Rebecca's condition. But when the argument for stem cell research is taken out of the emotional climate of a family with a sick child, or parent, and looked at in the larger context of things, decisions become more difficult to make.

    • Word count: 1053
  3. Scientists and Their Discoveries.

    In King's College in London, there was a woman named Rosalind Franklin that was creating the world's best X-ray diffraction photos of the DNA. Of the four DNA researchers only she had university degrees in chemistry. She died of cancer in 1958, at the age of 37. In 1962 the Nobel Prize, was given to Watson, Crick and Wilkins. Crick said, if Franklin had lived, "It would have been impossible to give the prize to Maurice and not to her" because "she did the key experimental work."

    • Word count: 1048
  4. The History and Development of DNA.

    A shape began to emerge. Three chains twisted about each other in a way that gave rise to crystallographic repeat every 2.8nm along the helical axis. Franklin's Response to the Crick-Watson 3-Chain Model (1952): Franklin objected to the proposed 3-chain model. She stated that its phosphate groups held together by Mg2+ ions was unlikely considering the Mg2+ ions would be surrounded by tight shells of water molecules. Pauling's 3-helix model: Pauling formulated a structure of 3 intertwined helical polynucleotide chains.

    • Word count: 637
  5. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    using an enzyme that they carry (reverse transcriptase). Human infection with HIV results in a complex clinical disease known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that may take ten years or more to develop. The outer surface of HIV is a lipid "envelope" derived from the cell membrane. Protruding from the surface are the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) and the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) that allow HIV to bind and fuse with a target cell. Within the envelope, the viral core protein, (p17), forms the matrix of the virion particle and the core protein, (p24), forms an inner cylindrically shaped nucleoid.

    • Word count: 1001
  6. Compare and contrast the different techniques used in separating biomolecules.

    Proteins have disulphide, these are broken before separation. SEPARATION OF PROTEINS Column Chromatography of proteins Colunm chromotography relies on the distribution of components do be separated in between two different phases, a mobile phase and a stationary phase. The mobile phase is used to carry the components involved through the stationary phase. The staionary phase is supplied through a packed bed in the column. There is a wide variety of chromatographic techniques; these are used to separate protein mixtures on the basis of molecular properties such as size, shape and weight or certain binding affinities.

    • Word count: 1433
  7. Cloning argument

    This allows us play God and it should not be like this. Death is inevitable for a human being, and as a human being we should know and accept this. Not only should stem cell research be prohibited, but so should the research of trying to clone a human being to live as long as non-cloned human. In an article written by Michael A.

    • Word count: 506
  8. Discovery of the Structure of DNA.

    were known * The sugar (S) and phosphate (P) were known to be connected together to form a backbone. The bases (B) were known to be stuck out to the side, attached to the sugar of the backbone by one of their N atoms: * Rosalind Franklin had pointed out that phosphate has negative charges at cellular PHs. Since these charges would repel each other she insisted that the sugar-phosphate backbone was on the outside of the molecule * Hydrogen bonds had been shown to be very important in determining the shapes of proteins and it was expected that they would be important in DNA as well * Rosalind Franklin had taken excellent x-ray diffraction pictures of DNA.

    • Word count: 834
  9. Watson, Crick or Franklin… Who Really Discovered the Secret of DNA?

    Later it was found that the sugar in nucleic acid could be ribose or deoxyribose, giving two forms: RNA and DNA. In 1943, American Oswald Avery proved that DNA carries genetic information. He even suggested DNA might actually be the gene. Most people at the time thought the gene would be protein, not nucleic acid, but by the late 1940s, DNA was largely accepted as the genetic molecule. Scientists still battled to figure out this molecule's structure to be sure, and to understand how it worked.

    • Word count: 1997
  10. Give an illustrated account of the role of the nucleus during protein synthesis. Include the terms hereditary material, DNA, genes, chromosomes, RNA and the nucleolus.

    The diagram below shows a short section of a polypeptide, with different amino acids represented by different colours, and peptide bonds in a light blue colour. P Within the nucleus of the human body cell is 46 chromosomes containing hereditary material, some from your mother and some from your father, each chromosome is one DNA molecule. Along this strand of DNA is many genes, all coding for one polypeptide chain. DNA is made up of many neucleotides, these are in turn made up of smaller components, one neucleotide is made up of a pentose sugar, (the pentagon shape)

    • Word count: 1039
  11. The Many Controversies of Stem Cell Research.

    Also another is the funding and cost of such research and how it will affect the people and their taxes. Not only does it raise legal and financial problems but it also creates moral questions; is the destruction of an embryo considered to be murder? Are embryos even considered to be human? A proposal to their solutions would be to limit federal funding to reduce the amount of money spent from the people's taxes. Restrictions and guidelines need to be made on what kinds of embryos are allowed for stem cell research.

    • Word count: 2466
  12. Polymerase Chain Reaction, or PCR Applications.

    Fig.1 Summary of PCR PCR is a very sensitive technique and because of this it is used worldwide in molecular biology. There are many applications of PCR, all of which have aided the current knowledge into DNA sequencing and cloning. PCR is frequently used when screening gene libraries after standard cloning experiments. This method can identify and isolate a clone carrying a particular region of the genome from the thousands of similar clones that contribute a gene bank. In this case PCR is known as 'in vitro amplification' as it utilises two oligonucleotide primers that flank the regions of interest.

    • Word count: 868
  13. Arv og miljø.

    Sola utsetter oss for ultrafiolett str�ling slik at huden blir brunfarget. Etter mange �r med solp�virkning eldes denne huden raskere enn hud som har f�tt lite sol. Mengden av rynker og pigmentflekker �ker jo mer ultrafiolett str�ling huden blir utsatt for. Unders�kelser viser at folk som arbeider ute under �pen himmel i solrike str�k, er mest utsatt for dette. Tydeligst ser vi det i nakken. Den delen av nakken som befinner seg over skjortekanten. Dette er en varig milj�p�virkning. R�yking f�rer ogs� til en raskere og varig aldring av huden. Den typen hud du har, er genetisk bestemt, enten du har arvet lys eller m�rk farge.

    • Word count: 1069
  14. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

    1,6532125137750 2,80 Bovine albumin 66 1,8195439355420 1,80 The distance of purified protein=3.9 cm Molecular weight of purified protein= -0.1872*3.9 + 2.1632 = 1.43312 Antilog of 1.43312= 101.43312 = 27.11kDa Results and Discussion Polyacrylamide gel: This gel is used as a supporting medium. It is the composition of two substances: acrylamide and bisacrylamide. When these two are combined a porous network is formed. The former determines the average polyacrylamide chain length. The latter determines the extent of the cross linking. The concentration of gel and the pore size is inversely proportional.

    • Word count: 821
  15. In our society today, there are many issues that stir up heated debate. The continuing debate over stem cell research and human cloning over the last few years in particular is no exception.

    There are skin cells, which gives rise to different types of skin cells, etc. Stem cells can be extracted from adults, children, and embryos. Embryonic stem cells are harvested from early human embryos. The embryos usually come from in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) clinics and are left over from infertility treatments. People arguing against embryonic stem cell research claim that other methods of harvesting stem cells where embryos are not destroyed can be just as effective at producing stem cells, or at least should be fully explored as an option first. These other methods include harvesting stem cells from cord blood taken from the umbilical cords of newborns and from bone marrow and other adult tissue.

    • Word count: 2349
  16. Separating biological macromolecules by Agarose gel electrophoresis.

    In solution (water), in principle all different sized proteins covered with SDS would run through an inert polymer, polyacrylamide. The density and pore size of this polymer can be varied by just how you make it. Thus, the size of molecules that can pass through the matrix can be varied. This determines what molecular weight range the gel will have the highest resolving power. Native Gels: It is also possible to run protein gels without SDS. These are called native gels in that one does not purposely denature protein. Here, the native charge on the protein (divided by its mass)

    • Word count: 1352
  17. The applications and research in developing Nanorobots.

    From the perspective of a cell, a fine surgical scalpel is as crude as a blunt tool. Invasive surgery wounds peripheral tissue and causes unnecessary harm to the patient. Drug therapy affects the body at the molecular level. Drug molecules are dumped into the body where they are transported by the circulatory system. They may come into contact with un-targeted parts of the body and lead to unwanted side effects. Nanomedical robots, however, will have no difficulty identifying cancer cells and will ultimately be able to track them down and destroy them wherever they may be growing.

    • Word count: 1697
  18. Describing how the structure of DNA is suited to its role in Cell Division and Protein Synthesis.

    Structure of DNA A strand of DNA is made up of a double helix. When it is unwound it consists of phosphate, sugar and one of four organic base/nitrogen molecules called nucleotides. The sugar and the phosphate form the two strands along the sides of the helix and the bases are joined by hydrogen bonds that form ties like rungs on a ladder. The role of DNA in Cell Division DNA is found in the cell nucleus, which has a Nuclear Envelope Pore. The role of DNA is to provide instructions for proteins to be produced in the cytoplasm.

    • Word count: 590
  19. "All Human Cloning should be Banned" do you Agree? Sow that you have looked at it through more than one point of view.

    There are a number of arguments to show if human cloning is good or if it is bad, there are two main points. The first - when does life begin? And the second - high risk in producing deformed individuals. At the moment the scientist can not clone a human but they can do 'Therapeutic cloning' which is the creation of human embryos in a lab to extract embryonic stem cells from them, these stem cells can develop into the chosen organ or cell.

    • Word count: 484
  20. AIDS in Our Society - There is a killer among our society.

    AIDS is a lethal condition because HIV destroys the body's immune system, rendering it defenseless against disease-causing organisms (Tamarin, 502). AIDS has spread throughout the world. There seems to be two worldwide patterns in the spread of AIDS, which is not contracted by casual contact. A 1959 blood sample from central Africa contained the first known human infection. Researchers discovered that the common form of AIDS, caused by HIV-1, jumped from chimpanzees to human beings in the region of Gabon in western Africa.

    • Word count: 852
  21. We are going to compare the fragments of viral DNA by adding three different enzymes.

    Do this for one full minute. > Allow the tube to stand for a further 5 minutes. The Lambda DNA solution should look slightly opaque. > Add a fresh tip to the microsyringe. Put 20 ul of Lambda ?DNA solution into an enzyme tube of your choice (refer to Fig. 4 for the colour code). Mix the liquid and the dried enzyme by carefully drawing the liquid up and down in the tip a few times. > Repeat this for each enzyme tube and the yellow 'control' tube, using a fresh tip each time to prevent cross-contamination between the tubes.

    • Word count: 1240
  22. Our aim is to cut DNA from the bacteriophage lambda into fragments using restriction enzymes from different bacteria. We also aim to separate the DNA into bands by electrophoresis and at the end observe the results.

    used for electrophoresis * comb * loading dye * carbon fibre electrodes * black card of plastic * two 9-volt batteries * wires * staining solution * 70% ethanol Experimental procedure: We can divide it into seven main processes: 1) Rehydrating the DNA: * We place 100 �l of distilled water into a tube containing a bacteriophage lambda DNA . We use the 10�l tip of a microsyringe 10 times in order to do that. * Then we let the mixture in the tube stand for 5 minutes after what we flicked it with a finger for 1 minute and then let it stand again for 5 minutes.

    • Word count: 1973
  23. Protein Synthesis

    Continued condensation reactions lead to the formation of a polynucleotide. DNA is a double stranded polymer made up of two polynucleotide chains, where the pentose sugar is always deoxyribose and the organic bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine, but never uracil. The amount of guanine is usually equal to that of cytosine and the amount of adenine is usually equal to that of thymine. Its in the form of a helix whose shape is maintained by hydrogen bonds. Each chain has a sugar phosphate backbone on the outside with organic bases on the inside.

    • Word count: 1555
  24. Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.

    a ribose pinto sugar, 2. a phosphate group, 3. a nitrogen bade. The sugar can be two possible sugars: 1. Ribose gives RNA with the molecular formula, C5H10O5, 2. Deoxyribose gives DNA with the molecular formula C5H10O4. The phosphate's molecular formula is H3PO4. Building a nucleotide: The nucleotide is usually represented as follows. Topic 2: The Chemistry of Life Sub-topic: 2.4 DNA Structure Page: 2 Since the reactions involves are condensation reactions, the equation becomes phosphate + sugar + organic base = nucleotide + two waters. 2.4.2 1 State the names of the four bases of DNA.

    • Word count: 649
  25. Compare the structure of RNA and DNA

    The nucleotides are held together by covalent bonds into a chain of nucleotides. DNA is made of two chains or strands, called a double helix. The nitrogen bases pair up in a specific order. A pairs with T, C pairs with G and vice-versa. This is called the complementary base pair rule and it has a great importance in the function of DNA during cell divisions/replication and protein synthesis. The sequence of the nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule is extremely important because it is the genetic code. RNA: -made of one strand, contains uracil instead of thymine as a nitrogen base, the pentose sugar is ribose, contains one more molecule of oxygen.

    • Word count: 1700

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