• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Is schizophrenia caused by genetic (nature) or environmental (nurture) factors? Critically discuss with reference to both psychological theory and research.

Extracts from this document...


Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Is schizophrenia caused by genetic (nature) or environmental (nurture) factors? Is schizophrenia caused by genetic (nature) or environmental (nurture) factors? Critically discuss with reference to both psychological theory and research. Student ID: Name of Tutor: Unit number: Unit name: Psychology 101 Word count:1200 Abstract The purpose of this essay is to find out if schizophrenia is caused by genetic or environmental factors. The essay discussed both genetic and environmental factors critically with reference to both psychological theory and research. The essay examined a wide range of literature and resources ranging from biological and environmental theories, scholarly articles and peer reviewed journals The essay supports the assertion that genetic factors play a more prominent role in the cause of schizophrenia than environmental factors. The paper concluded by maintaining that though genetic factors are more responsible for schizophrenia than environmental factors, it acknowledges the importance of environment factors in the cause of schizophrenia. That both factors are interwoven and significant in the cause of schizophrenia. Is schizophrenia caused by genetic (nature) or environmental (nurture) factors? Critically discuss with reference to both psychological theory and research. What is schizophrenia? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition: DSM-5 and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition: ICD-10 see Schizophrenia as a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behaviour and failure to understand what is real. ...read more.


(Cui D, et al, 2015). Most evidence comes from research using family studies and in particular the twin research. The twin research has shown over the years consistently that identical twins have a greater risk of developing schizophrenia, if their twin has the disorder, than non-identical twins. Monozygotic twins have a high possibility to develop schizophrenia and have a concordance rate at the range of 42 48% compared to dizygotic twins, 17 -18% concordance rate. (Gilmore, John H. 2010), (Jay, J 2004). Some researchers argue that since monozygotic twins are born at the same time, they get treated similarly, and are often raised in a similar environment. The implication for this is that concordance rate between twins cannot be reliable according to this argument because if schizophrenia were genetically inherited then concordance rates should be closer to 100% as the twins would have been treated similarly; then we could argue that environmental factors can be an explanation of the cause of schizophrenia in a pair of monozygotic twins: the same can be mentioned for first degree relative because they will still share a similar environment which could provide an explanation for concordance rates. (?agud, M, 2009), (Seglem, K et al, 2015). A number of researches on adoptions support the claims that genetic factors play a part in the development of schizophrenia. ...read more.


According to (Karayiorgou, M,, 2010). Contracting disease like flu or syphilis in the womb may lead to developing schizophrenia in later life. For example people give birth to more schizophrenia in the winter when the weather temperature is at zero or below zero degrees. Kanahara, N, (2015) posits that Psychotic syndromes can be understood as disorders of adaptation to social context. Although heritability is often emphasized, onset is associated with environmental factors such as early life adversity,growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that exposure may have an impact on the developing 'social' brain during sensitive periods. Therefore heritability, as an index of genetic influence, may be of limited explanatory power unless viewed in the context of interaction with social effects. (Van Os, Jim, U Maastricht, 2009) Childhood abuse has been implicated as an environmental factor that increases the risk for developing schizophrenia. A study found that abuse may be a risk factor for schizophrenia in women, but not men. Violence against women is a major public health problem. Women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia suffer higher rates of violence compared with women without mental illnesses. Rice, E, 2006). In conclusion, a lot of evidence support a strong genetic components responsible for the basis of schizophrenia. No single cause of the disorder has yet been identified. In this essay we would support the Diathesis?stress model as available evidence suggest a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Discuss the key pathways that have been proposed to linking stress to physical illness ...

    and Abramson and Martin's theory of depression (1981). Another such theory (influenced heavily by the work of Schachter) is the cognitive appraisal theory (Lazerus, 1982), which suggests that there is some minimal cognitive appraisal of a situation or stimuli which always comes before the emotional experience, be it consciously or automatically occurring.

  2. Measures of job satisfaction are directly linked to theories of attitudes. Discuss this ...

    the three aspects measured altogether, are fairly consistent with the theoretical idea that different classes of evaluative responses do not exist independently of each other but do, indeed, impinge on one another. Theoretical basis for the response biases in measures of job satisfaction The view that attitudes are ordinarily expressed

  1. Schizophrenia and related psychosis.

    The theory is based on the concept of an individual's need to process information and subsequently adapt in order to survive. Much of this process lies outside of conscious awareness. The process of information interpretation is in the adaptation of a series of coding systems where selected data is integrated and interpreted and subsequently stored.

  2. Theories Of Death. When considering what constitutes death, we can categorize our ideologies ...

    Furthermore the lifeless cadaver can also operate as a plant for manufacturing hormones or other biochemical compounds in demand (Potts, 2011). Tempting also are the promises of a self-replenishing blood bank and the ability to facilitate research. Researchers can use the cadaver for surgical and grafting experiments without any restrictions

  1. Comparative essay on how the humanistic compared with psychodynamic approach, define and treat the ...

    If having higher than average standards of what is socially acceptable can lead to anxious behaviour. This part of the personality judges the actions controlled by the ID and Ego, making us feel guilt or shame so that we know right from wrong.

  2. It can be argued that attribution theory does no more than suggest that individuals ...

    In this experiment Leon Festinger proved his definition of cognitive dissonance theory when people carried on believing that world was going to end. People altered and accepted new beliefs such as the world was saved because of God. Eventually the group became more passionate with this belief and carried on believing.

  1. Memory is not a unitary system." Discuss the types of evidence that have been ...

    Whilst it could be argued that these particular tasks are simply very demanding on resources and are thus performed badly, if a double dissociation can be found between two subjects, that is, if one amnesic subject performs well on task A but poorly on task B whilst another subject exhibits

  2. Explore the different psychological perspectives and their relation to each other.

    a strong influence on following the development of humans, with its focus on early relationships, psychosexual stages and our consequent sexual behaviour. Concentrating on the meaning of biological differences and how these are internalized in a child?s mind. Freuds?s theory that anatomical differences were enough to explain the psychological differences between girls and boys (as cited in Cooper et al.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work