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Mammalian cell structure

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Introduction

DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL COMPARTMENTATION OF MAMMALIAN CELLS AND THE DIFFERING FUNCTIONS OF THESE COMPARTMENTS In this essay I would like to talk about the compartmentalisation of the cell and some important processes happen within the cell that requires the corporation of different organelles. Eukaryotic cells (from the Greek meaning truly nuclear) can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus. Mammalian cells are one of the two types of eukaryotic cells, in which contains many internal membrane bounded structures called organelles, they are separated into different groups in order to increase their efficiency at bringing out particular function, and this is called compartmentalization, however there is processes that requires different organelles working together in order to take place, such as respiration (involves the cytoplasm and mitochondria) and Protein Synthesis (Nucleus, Ribosomes). Mammalian cells are different to Plant cells (which are also eukaryotic), they do not have a cellulose cell wall, and they are bounded by only plasma membrane, so they are sensitive to Osmotic lysis (the bursting or rupturing of the plasma membrane due to osmotic movement of water into the cell when the cell is in a hypotonic environment. The command centre of the cell, usually the largest is the nucleus; it contains the DNA information (chromosomes) ...read more.

Middle

The intermembrane space is the narrow part between the two membranes while the mitochondrial matrix is the part enclosed by the innermost membrane. Several of the steps in cellular respiration (Krebs cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation) occur in the matrix due to its high concentration of enzymes. Golgi apparatus is the site where proteins produced by the ribosomes on rough endoplasmic reticulum further packaged and modified before releasing out of the cell through exocytosis. Lysosomes are vesicles that contain various hydrolytic enzymes such as lysozymes, which are capable of digesting macromolecules such as fats and proteins. Lysosomes are responsible for the recycle of the cell?s organic material and are involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death). The Cytoskeleton is made up by a three dimensional filamentous protein network, microtubule, microfilaments and intermediate filaments; it extends throughout the cell and is attached to the plasma membrane and internal organelles, hence providing a framework for cellular organization, giving support to the cell shape, organelle movement and cell motion. The plasma membrane, cytoplasm and the centriole also play a very important role in cell compartmentalization. The plasma membrane was a lipid bilayer made up by phosphorylated lipids which contains various proteins and lipids, such as glycoprotein, integral and peripheral protein and glycolipids. ...read more.

Conclusion

however, if a ribosome which is attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum was used, this protein synthesized would then be transported to the Golgi apparatus through a vesicle undergo further modification and packaging, at last the ?ready? protein would be transported to the membrane through a vesicle and be released through exocytosis. The above diagram sums up the different stages in cell respiration (ATP synthesis). ATP synthesis involves three stages, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and Oxidative phosphorylation, in which Glycolysis take place in the cytoplasm and the other two stages take place in the matrix and the inner membrane of the mitochondria respectively. The whole process was initiated by the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate (Glycolysis), it would then be converted into acetyl CoA which would then combine with oxaloacetate to form a six-carbon compound which would then be reduced (Krebs Cycle), releasing large amount of Hydrogen, reduced NAD and reduced FAD (which would release Hydrogen in the last stage) , the large amount of Hydrogen would pass through ATP synthase due to the electrochemical gradient between the matrix and the inner membrane of mitochondria, and this movement creates a large amount of ATP (oxidative phosphorylation). To conclude, compartmentalization promotes a sense of division of labour, allowing different organelles maximizing their role and allowing them to work together to bring out important processes for the cell. ...read more.

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