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University Degree: Microbiology

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  1. A pathophysiology review on emphysema

    As the disease progresses further the alveoli proceeds to have an unusual shape due to the continued enlargement of the air sacs, because of this, during exhalation there is great difficulty in airflow since the alveolar walls have been damaged making it difficult to breathe out. Furthermore the elastic connective tissue which helps support the alveoli in place also contributes to the difficulty in breathing since it has been destroyed (Handford et al., 2004). The clinical features of emphysema involve the deterioration of the alveoli which include the alveolar walls losing its structure (Chakir et al., 2008).

    • Word count: 2426
  2. Free essay

    Identifying microorganisms using differential staining techniques

    Bacillus megaterium is a gram-positive rod shaped bacteria that produces spores. This type of bacteria is one of the largest Eubacteria that is found in soil (Kunkel, 2009). Clostridium sporogenes is a gram-positive rod shaped bacteria that also produces spores. It is found often in soil as well as the intestines of animals and humans. This type of organism is often used to conduct studies involving low acid foods (Kunkel, 2007). In this lab we will explore three major types of differential staining techniques. These techniques are gram stain, acid-fast stain and the spore stain.

    • Word count: 2026
  3. The aim of this investigation is to make a series of dilutions using the correct liquid handling technique with a pipette, and then finding out the optical density for each of the solutions when they are pipetted into a 96-well plate.

    This type of pipette is useful since they can be used to pipette very small sizes of liquid (ranging from ml to �l). In order to obtain excellent results the user must always make sure that the pipette is held in a vertical upright position and that the right measurement was used. The plastic tips can be used over and over again since they are disposable. Hypothesis: Null Hypothesis: There will be no significant difference between the pipetted dilution samples and the optical density of each well.

    • Word count: 2002
  4. Identification of an Unknown Enterobacteriaceae. The purpose of the experimental determination of an unknown was to demonstrate the utility of many tests that indicate the metabolic behavior of the unknown.

    It has been shown that its optimal growth temperature was at 37 C. P. vulgaris is a chemoheterotroph, which means it uses carbon sources like glucose for energy and carbon. As a chemoheterotroph, it ferments glucose but not lactose or mannitol. However, because it is a facultative anaerobe, the glucose fermentation only occurs in anaerobic conditions. If placed in non-ideal, aerobic conditions, the microbe will use a variety of organic molecules to survive. (Struble, et al., 2009) When identifying the microbe, several tests can be used. It will test positive on the citrate test and urease test.

    • Word count: 2140
  5. Distinguishing Species of Bacteria

    (Davidson, 2010) After inoculation, the tubes are incubated at 37�C which is the optimal temperature for growth. A negative result for the carbohydrate test is no change in pH(no colour change) or gas production. (Goldman 2009) A positive result is gas produced and a acid production (yellow). (Goldman 2009) The second test is the indole test. Indole is a by-product of the metabolic breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan by the enzyme tryptophanase. (Davidson, 2010) Another by-product of this degradation is pyruvate which is used as an energy source for the bacteria.

    • Word count: 2238
  6. In this essay I am going to explore the functions of carbohydrates within the body and plants. It will give me a chance to explain and understand fully the role of carbohydrates and, how the structure of a carbohydrate can help the structure of a cell

    They also provide an "excellent source for the many different activities going on in our cells". Not only are carbohydrates an excellent source of energy, they also allow cells to communicate with on another, and also bind together with the surroundings of the cell. Carbohydrates are divided into three groups, which are commonly known as "monosaccharides"(single sugars), "disaccharide's" (double sugars), and "polysaccharides" (many sugars). Oligiosacchaides, are when only few monosacchardies units are linked together, they are still however very important.

    • Word count: 2015
  7. Folic acid. In 1993 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in the USA suggested the regulation of fortification of folic acid in many different types of food. Since then, only 10 countries have adopted this idea to fortify their staple foods. This would

    It was synthesised by the Americans naming it the chemical name pteroylglutamic acid. Folic acid is water soluble therefore it is referred in use then naturally occurring Folate, which has a lower absorption rate. Folic acid is also involved in the function of nucleoprotein synthesis, and red blood cell synthesis. A deficiency in this vitamin can lead to anaemia, and neural tube defects in the foetus. In the colon there are large numbers of bacteria. These bacteria aid in digesting the remaining food products. They also produce folic acid, which prevents anemia, and they aid in the absorption of several vitamins.

    • Word count: 2286
  8. This review looks at how silicification of bacteria allows preservation of the bacteria through fossilisation and also helps the bacteria to survive the hostile environment.

    Moreover, modern geothermal technology allow for contemporary analogues for conditions which Precambrian microorganisms are fossilized. [10] There are many researches that detail the silicification of microorganisms as preservation. For example, a thin microbial mat formed by 0.25-�m diameter filaments was silicified on the top of volcanic littoral silts, [11, 12] and similar silicified microbial mat remnants was found in other parts of South Africa. [13] Further evidences include silicified colonies of small (<1 lm) coccoidal micro-organisms associated with 3.466 Ga-old volcanic sands and silts [14] and fields of small, silicified stromatolites with dissimilar morphologies were found in Australia.

    • Word count: 2134
  9. Write an essay in up to 2000 words on the following topics, describing the procedures that can be used to isolate proteins from a cell and the methods involved in checking the purity. Using diagrams to help, you should explain fully the principles behind

    In Healthcare the main procedures used are: 1. Percipation 2. Chromatography 3. centrifugation In healthcare cells are very important as they carry important information about the human body, as most disease is discovered in the blood as cells are infected. The isolation of proteins from cells is very important as we are able to examine and treat infections, viruses etc. with the growing technology in healthcare and treatment becoming widely available the isolation techniques vary. Infections associated with health care are a growing factor as they can live in the body undetected for a long time, however the detection of these infections is vital so that we can treat them successfully, the cells contain different proteins therefore the correct method is necessary.

    • Word count: 2020
  10. Obligate intracellular pathogenesis

    - Then after purification of restriction enzyme further manipulation of DNA has been developed. Restriction enzyme has been isolated from bacteria , it cuts DNA at a specific sequence and produce restriction fragments . it has two major roles which is construction of recombinant DNA molecule and maps the restriction sites place in DNA . - Southern blotting developed by Edward M. Southern at Edinburgh university in the year 1970. This locates an interested DNA sequence within a complex mixture by using radioactive probes to detect fragments on agarose gel which are complementary to a sequence of a given DNA.

    • Word count: 2100
  11. Cardiac Disease

    The electrical potential across the cardiac cell membrane called resting membrane potential which is (-90mV) in atrial and ventricular myocardial cells and (-70mV) in the SA and AV nodes. When electrical impulses activates myocardial cells the membrane of polarized myocardial cells will turn to open the Na+ channels leading to flow in the sodium ions from out side of the cells in to the cells with their ionic concentration gradient, thus the interior cell become less negative with respect to it is exterior and the cell membrane potential decreases to (-65mV to -70mV)

    • Word count: 2736
  12. Free essay

    How had research over the past 25 years led us to think that microbes may be able to survive in extraterrestrial environments?

    Space explorations have revealed other planets with environmental extremes analogous to those found on earth. Therefore the discovery of extremophiles has made the search for extraterrestrial life more plausible. Furthermore, as more extremophiles are uncovered in what previously were thought to be uninhabitable environments, our view of the conditions required for life becomes less restricted. Extremophiles are found in all domains of life; from radiation-resistant bacteria (Anderson et al 1956) to extreme sunflowers thriving in salt marshes (Rieseberg et al 2003). However, research over the past 25 years has shown that microbes are the most abundant group of extremophiles (Satyanarayana et al 2005).

    • Word count: 2592
  13. Identification of reporter genes

    The following table shows what characteristics are expected from each reporter gene: Reporter Gene Characteristics under which condition LuxA-E genes Bioluminescence by leaving for 5-10mins in a dark room. LuxA and B genes Some Bioluminescence by addition of an exogenous aldehyde substrate then left in dark for 5-10mins. XylE gene Encodes for enzyme catechol 2,3 dioxygenase which turns catechol a yellow colour. lacZY In presence of inducer IPTG and substrate X-gal, bacterial colonies turn blue if �-galactosidase present One of the most typical uses of reporter genes is to learn about how a gene is regulated, typically a reporter gene

    • Word count: 2093
  14. Tiny Bubbles Biology Lab

    8. Fill the test tubes with tap water till the 3/4 mark and place them back in the stand. Experimental process: Part 1: 1. Using a tong, soak a felt disk in the yeast solution for 3 seconds. 2. While one person is in control of the felt, another lab partner must submerge the temperature probe into a test tube. 3. At the same time, a third lab partner must begin the LoggerPro program on the laptop by clicking COLLECT in order for the temperature probe to take temperature readings. In this trial, the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide will be at room temperature.

    • Word count: 2443
  15. Urinary Tract Infections: The Pathogenic Traits of Proteus mirabilis.

    2. Morphology Cell morphology was investigated by inoculating the centre of a nutrient agar (NA) plate, and some nutrient broth (NB) with a colony from the CLED plate and examining cells from the plates under the electron microscope. 3. Chemotaxis a) Chemotaxis chamber: One well and half of the channel was filled with 10% nutrient agar. The opposite well and the rest of the channel were filled with 1M hydrochloric acid. This was repeated in other chambers substituting 1M HCl with either 1M potassium hydroxide, 1M glucose or sterilised distilled water (SDW).

    • Word count: 2107
  16. Describe the chemotaxis systems of bacteria.

    The fine structure of the flagellum is that of a right-handed helical fibre embedded in the bacterial cell membrane. It is composed of multiple repeats of a single type of protein subunit called Flagellin. A single bacterial cell may possess multiple flagella. The bacterial flagellum sits between the inner and outer membranes of the bacterium, and has a number of distinct components. Rotation of the flagellum follows as a direct result of its structure. The fibre is connected by a short flexible protein hook to a small protein disc embedded in the plasma membrane. This disc constitutes part of the motor, and by utilising the energy stored in the transmembrane proton gradient, the bacterium can cause this disc to rotate, thereby effecting movement of the fibre.

    • Word count: 2405
  17. Microbial Evaluation of Two Food samples (Chicken and Doubles) Aim: To identify and count different bacteria present in chicken and doubles (Salmonella, Staphylococcus, E. coli, and total aerobic bacteria).

    The isolated colonies for enumeration will grow along the lines of the streaks. Salmonella, Staphylococcus and E. coli (enterovirulent) are some of the most common and dangerous microbial food borne organisms. Salmonella frequently has been associated with food borne illnesses and cause salmonellosis. Symptoms may include nausea, fever vomiting and acute gastroenteritis. Staphylococcus species such as S. aureus is also another principal causative agent in food borne illnesses. It grows in food and produces toxins that, when ingested causes an inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestinal tract, or gastroenteritis. E. coli is mostly found on the surface of meats.

    • Word count: 2668
  18. Describe the Concept and Discuss the Importance of Homeostasis

    This explains the reason why more lizards are caught by kookaburras on cold cloudy days than on sunny hot days. The regulatory processes that are the basis of homeostasis depend solely on the use of negative feedback systems, which work by analysing sensory information about a particular variable (e.g. pH, salinity, temperature etc), and using this information to respond to the stimulus and bring the variable back to the equilibrium state. Control systems are said to consist of receptors, which measure the factor being controlled, an amplifier, which makes the signal larger, and a negative feedback system which applies the amplified error signal back to reduce the error.

    • Word count: 2390
  19. Measure cellular respiration in living and dormant pea seeds at two different temperatures.

    Each step in cellular respiration insures that the energy in the glucose bonds is conserved. The amount of cellular respiration reflects the amount of activity in the cell. In order to produce energy and continue living, cells perform cellular respiration. Thus, cells that perform cellular respiration more are also more active. There are three ways that the amount of cellular respiration can be measured: the consumption of oxygen, the production of carbon dioxide, and the release of energy. Hypothesis: If a respirometer only contains germinating peas and is placed in a temperature of twenty five degrees Celsius, then this respirometer will show the highest amount of oxygen consumption.

    • Word count: 2043
  20. How does varying bacterial amylase effect inhibition by copper?

    Bacteria can be found in a wide range of environments, for example, water, air, soils and sediments. Bacteria are also found in a wide range of temperatures from 0-90 �C. The bacteria have adapted to the environments. Therefore I think that bacterial amylase have a better chance at withstanding changes in temperature and pH and therefore will be more resistant to denaturation. The rate of reaction will increase as the temperature increases. This is because the molecules have more kinetic energy resulting in more successful collisions.

    • Word count: 2462
  21. Development of salmonella vaccine

    Regulatory GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) requirements are increasing to guarantee the safety of vaccines being developed and produced. Using raw material of animal origin is avoided in the early-stages of research and development. Only few techniques such as nano-filtration and chromatography steps are applicable to viral removal. The worldwide ban of preservatives such as thiomersal raised the standard for sterile production and supported the trend to monodose presentations. To date, vaccines based on three different technologies are registered for human use: (1) whole inactivated vaccines containing entire killed bacteria or viruses, (2) subunit vaccines, containing only the relevant antigens of the pathogens in a highly purified form, and (3)

    • Word count: 2248

"Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world."

-Louis Pasteur

There are approximately ten times more bacterial cells in your body than human ones: if reading that fact made you feel excited rather than disgusted, then a university degree in microbiology could be for you. Whether it's fungi, deadly viruses, or the bacteria that give us stomach ulcers, the world of the unseen has enough fascinating material to last a lifetime.

As with all the degrees, good writing skills will help you excel here. Your professors will expect to see cleanly constructed lab reports and papers, held together with a sophisticated writing style. If you need help with this, look no further than Marked by Teachers' collection of microbiology essays. Study our worked examples, and you'll learn to write papers to a higher standard than ever before.

Microbiology students can expect to put in lots of hours at the lab, in addition to lectures and plenty of homework. After graduation, you can continue your studies in the same vein, or build your career in a field like teaching, medicine or biotech.


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