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Psychological and Sociological Perspectives On Human Development and Behaviour.

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Introduction

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOUR Cherine Docherty - HNC Social Care In my portfolio, I am going to analyse the psychological factors influencing the development and needs to the individual throughout the life cycle and the sociological factors contributing to the understanding of the development of the individual. I am going to base my portfolio into seven different chapters; My first chapter I will analyse the development of the infancy stage, speaking about Freud and Erikson's theories, I will also speak about single parent families, one cause and effect of discrimination, and I will include my own personal experience; My second chapter I will analyse the development of the childhood stage, speaking about Freud and Erikson's theories, I will also speak about the nuclear family in this chapter; My third chapter I will analyse the development of adolescence, speaking about Freud and Erikson's theories; My fourth chapter I will analyse the development of adulthood, speaking about Maslow and Erikson's theories; In my fifth chapter I will analyse the development of the older adult, speaking about Maslow and Erikson's theories, I will also speak about the extended family and one cause and effect of discrimination. Throughout these five chapters I will also include in each one; socialisation, poverty, PICES and I will portray a mind map at the beginning of each chapter. In my sixth and seventh chapter, I will speak about nature/nurture and I am going to draw a diagram revealing some poverty statistics in recent years. At the very end of my portfolio, I am going to draw up a conclusion reflecting on my portfolio. From infancy through to adolescence, I will be talking about Freud and Erikson's theories. Erikson's core tendency was "similar to Freud, but with a definite emphasis on some proportion of functioning that is not determined by the attempt to avoid conflict between the individual and society".

Middle

I think children should know a little more about money and where it comes from. Children often think money grows on trees and it is very easy to get. They should be taught that people have to work for money; they have to earn money. Nowadays, parents like their children to earn their money. Older children will do choirs about the house for pocket money. In addition, by giving younger children pocket money it will learn them to budget their money; they learn to budget when they buy their own comics and sweets. I have attached the article on the opposite page. Throughout the chapter I have wrote about development in childhood and how the child develops. In some parts of the world children, have this basic right taken away from them. Some children may not develop properly through poverty and isolation. "All children have rights: the right to protection, to education, to food and medical care, and to much more. Every child, no matter where he or she lives, has the right to grow up feeling safe and cared for: a simple thought, which few would openly challenge. But, sadly, the reality is quite different". (Audrey Hepburn, In United Nations International Children's Emergency fund, 1989). There are a lot of children in third world countries who could be in poverty. I look at newspapers and see on the news the harrowing stories about children in poverty and I feel so sorry for them. Their basic rights are taken away from them; they are so unhealthy looking, they are so drawn and look very unhappy. "Diseases which are relatively minor in developed countries, or which have been eradicated, carry high morality and morbidity in developing countries.... One example of such a disease is measles, which it should theoretically be possible to eradicate, or at least effectively, to control if total immunisation could be achieved.

Conclusion

Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. GENERATIVITY VERSUS STAGNATION During middle adulthood, we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. Now I am going to write a little about Abraham Maslow and what he says about adulthood. Abraham Maslow was born 1 April 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He was the first of seven children in his family and his parents were uneducated Jewish Immigrants from Russia. His parents pushed him hard for academic success and he became very lonely as a boy; he found his refuges in books. Maslow studied law at first; he also married his first cousin Bertha Goodman and had two daughters with her. In 1951, Maslow served as chair of the psychology department at Brandeis for 10years - here Kurt Goldstein introduced him to self-actualization. Maslow began his crusade for a humanistic psychology at Brandeis and he spent his final years in semi-retirement in California. On 8 June 1970, he died of a heart attack after years of ill health. (18) "Abraham Maslow set out to discover why such 'healthy people' are able to embody 'full humanness'. He went on to research other notable individuals, trying to find patterns and common characteristics....The result of this research (in Motivation and personality, 1970, and The Farther Reaches of Human Nature,1971), was the theory of SELF-ACTUALIZATION: the innate human motivation, that each of us has, to ACHIEVE OUR POTENTIAL by using and developing our talents and abilities. Each time we experience such a sense of fulfillment is called a PEAK EXPERIENCE....In order to reach Self-Actualization, we have to satisfy lower 'needs' that exist at different levels. THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Each must be satisfied before the next Need up can motivate us.

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