University Degree: Clinical Psychology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Evaluate the claim that Person-Centred Therapy offers the therapist all that he/she need to treat the clients

    3 star(s)

    Human potential movement, dating back to the beginning of the 1900s, reflected an altered perspective of human nature. Previous psychological theories viewed human beings as inherently selfish and corrupt. For example, Freud's theory focused on sexual and aggressive tendencies as the primary forces driving human behaviour. The human potential movement, by contrast, defined human nature as inherently good. From its perspective, human behaviour is motivated by a drive to achieve one's fullest potential. âHumanistic theories of personality maintain that humans are motivated by the uniquely human need to expand their frontiers and to realise as much of their potential as possibleâ.

    • Length: 2576 words
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the person-centered approach and cognitive-behavioural approaches to understanding and working with fear and sadness. Which of these two approaches do you feel more drawn to and why?

    It is based on the fact that thoughts cause behaviours and feelings, not events and people, therefore if the client can change the way he thinks and the way he responds to the negative feelings he is experiencing, then this will help to overcome his problems. [KHB2] The main components to this practical therapy are education, identification of negative automatic thoughts and challenging dysfunctional schemata. The client and councillor spend the therapy sessions discussing and working together to achieve goals agreed by them both, they focus on the present and determine how to work on the problems, rather than the causes from the past.

    • Length: 2263 words
  3. Case study of a five-year old girl with school refusal behaviour

    Mary was described by school staff as a quiet child who liked to play alone. She lived with her mother and her eleven year old brother. Her parents had been separated for six months. Theoretical background When assessing treatment approaches for school refusal it is useful to consider whether the school refusal behaviour presents an acute onset or a chronic course, the degree of parental involvement, if other disorders are present as well as the number reasons behind the school refusal behaviour. Both cognitive-behavioural and behavioural interventions have been shown to successfully treat cases of school refusal with various degrees of severity and complexity.

    • Length: 1405 words
  4. Outline the major symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder. Case study of one sufferer.

    Fifteen to twenty percent of Americans will experience major depression at some point during their lives. People aged 18 to 24 are most likely to have experienced it during the past thirty days. Major depression can happen at any point during one's lifetime. Biological factors may predispose an individual to depression. A sense of helplessness, as well as an external locus of control also may be causal factors for Major Depressive Disorder (Gregiore & Kohn, 2010). According to the American Psychiatric Association (1994), the following criteria must be met in order to receive a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder: Five

    • Length: 633 words
  5. n this assignment I will look at how I would prepare for and set up a counselling practice. I will look at what are the essential requirements for a successful private practice and what will contribute to the quality of the service that will be provided.

    I would also be available for client work from 17:00 every weekday. This would be to accommodate working people who would want to access my services at the end of their working day and it is here that I would expect to be my peak times. It may require me to work until 20:00 or 21:00 during weekdays and this may require me to change my own social routine. In the short term while I build my practice it may be seen as very long work days for me but as this is a gradual approach I would reduce my support work hours as my private clients built up.

    • Length: 1962 words
  6. This is a two part assignment looking at clients with a range of bereavement and mental issues, how person centred therapy could be used. It will also examine other theories and systems that are available to clients outside of the therapy room.

    and as with any client, to provide the core conditions of congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy in a non directive way. John expressed how, after losing his partner, he has been unable to accept her loss at such a young age and how he feels his life has fallen apart since. Knowledge of the specific theories surrounding any life experience, and in this case bereavement, is useful in the same way that knowledge of person centred theory harbours good person centred practice.

    • Length: 2583 words
  7. In order to compare and contrast both Focusing-Oriented and Experiential therapies to Classical Person-Centred theory it is important to look at each in turn to understand what they are

    states 'Rogers means that in order for therapeutic change to take place all of the conditions must be present'. By sufficient Rogers means that the conditions are all that are required, nothing else is necessary. And finally, that the therapist believes in the sovereignty of the client and adopts a principled non-directional approach to therapy. The client remains in control of the process with the therapist avoiding directing the client's experiences or focus. Focusing-Oriented Counselling, F-OC, was developed by a colleague of Carl Rogers, Eugene Gendlin. According to Purton (2007:6) 'this is not a school of therapy or brand of counselling.

    • Length: 1235 words
  8. Abnormal Psychology Case Study - A joint diagnosis of Generalised Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia Disorder was given which accounted for the symptoms that Isabella was presenting with in accordance to the DSM-IV and proposed DSM-V. To further analyse t

    diagnostic criteria for PD, not all the criteria is appropriately satisfied. From the information we have obtained from Isabella so far, it does seem that her reports of feeling like she was suffering a heart attack is consistent with the DSM-IV PD criteria of persistent concern of the implications of the attack. Similarly, the attacks do not seem to be the result of any substance abuse, since there is no evidence that Isabella is suffering from a substance abuse problem. Furthermore, for an accurate diagnosis of PD, DSM-IV states the symptoms must not be better explained by another anxiety disorder.

    • Length: 2359 words
  9. In this essay I will look at the key features of the cognitive behavioural approach to counselling and will discuss the ways in which it differs from the psychodynamic approach.

    The main components to this practical therapy are education, identification of negative automatic thoughts and challenging dysfunctional schemata. The client and councillor spend the therapy sessions discussing and working together to achieve goals agreed by them both, they focus on the present and determine how to work on the problems, rather than the causes from the past. A councillor can work with an individual, family group using this method to replace and intervene thoughts and to alter beliefs. This technique can be used to tackle many problems including anxiety, expression, phobias, drug or alcohol problems, relationships etc.

    • Length: 1258 words
  10. The case study I will be discussing presents the issue of one client in couples counseling disclosing to the therapist that they are having an affair which the other client in therapy does not know about. There has been large debate on what a therapist sh

    When Bonnie returns, she continues to have an online webcam affair with Fernando in while she is at work. Bonnie and her husband Clyde have come to counseling on Clyde's request because he feels that Bonnie is distant and has been distancing herself from him. At the end of one session the Bonnie tells Clyde to go out of the office so that he can set up their next appointment. She then proceeds to close the door and informs the counselor that she is currently having an affair and that Clyde does not know about it.

    • Length: 1440 words
  11. Cocaine Addiction: Literature Review, Modalities, and Improved Treatment Plan

    They do not care what they have to do in order to get money for this drug, whether it is lying, stealing, cheating, or prostitution. Young, Boyd, & Hubbell (2000) convey that "women may enter prostitution in order to fund their drug use" (p. 789). Therefore, this abnormal behavior will affect any family if they are not aware that drugs cause a person to do something out of character. Historical Role Addiction has been a long-standing problem in society, with addiction to drugs.

    • Length: 5998 words
  12. This paper analyzes the psychological profile of the character Selena from the movie Dolores Claiborne. Selena is a survivor of childhood sexual abuse. The analysis focuses on how Selenas biological, cultural, and psychological issues relate to

    Dolores is a mother who discovers that her husband is sexually abusing their daughter, Selena. Selena exhibits many of the symptoms of childhood sexual abuse survivors including repressed memories (Spitzer & Avis, 2006) self-mutilation, drug use, anxiety attacks and sexual behavior problems (LeBlanc, Brabant, & Forsyth, 1996). This paper begins by exploring Selena's psychological profile, including: (1) how Selena's sexual behaviors are influenced by biological, cultural and psychological variables, and (2) how Selena's attitudes are influenced by her understanding of human sexuality and expression.

    • Length: 3725 words
  13. Research and statistical significance for a pilot study on CBT for children with anxiety disorders

    The team decided to look at alternative ways of using CBT but adapted to suit treating anxious children under 8. The team's innovative method of treatment was named 'Taming "sneaky fears" child and parent treatment manual'. This adapted form of CBT would be applied through stories, games and activities. These methods where seen as more appealing to younger children under 8 as they aimed at engaging with them through play thus allowing them to feel comfortable which in turn would hopefully facilitate communication (Monga et al 2009).

    • Length: 2675 words
  14. Literature review on research methods;How effective is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in the treatment of Childhood Anxiety?

    Solar then gives the option of a more specific database search engine such as EBSCO the academic search premier database (EBSCO 2011). EBSCO gives you the option to use keywords to help you find a specific researched area. Keywords where picked with the literature review question in mind. The keywords used where; Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, CBT and child anxiety. Between each keyword a Boolean (EBSCO 2011) word can be used e.g. and, or, not. You are also able to select where you would like the keywords to be i.e.

    • Length: 2063 words
  15. How did Freud change our understanding of hysteria?

    Historian Rachel Maines believes that the history of hysteria can be followed back to during the Victorian era, in which women were deemed to be "an epitome of conservative human beings that are too vulnerable to any outside destruction thus they are kept safe"3. They would have symptoms that included feeling faint, paranoia, severe lack of sleep, water retention, trouble controlling their breathing, loss of libido and appetite, and possibly an aggressive nature.4 Hysteria then begins to evolve further into the nineteenth century where hysteria changes into a widespread disorder or a disorder for females as it was related with their removal of sexual intercourse.

    • Length: 3727 words
  16. The purpose of this essay is to consider different systemic issues in a counselling case study. The focus of systemic approaches is not on the individual, but on their wider social context,

    I will look at different methods and techniques that may potentially help Andy and his family. I will address Andy's issue of not feeling part of his family as a man, and the reasons for this. I will finish this essay by summing up what this essay has covered and a short self reflection. Andy is a 46 year old, white supermarket worker who was born and raised in Liverpool. Andy is the middle child. He has one older sister and one younger sister. He was raise by his parents up until the age of 10, at which time both Andy and his sisters were placed in care. Andy's relationship with his parents was very bad.

    • Length: 2096 words
  17. Are People Becoming More Intelligent: A Discussion in Relation to the Flynn Effect

    This paper will discuss this question by examining the Flynn effect and possible explanations to this phenomenon. As part of the process of validating and establishing norms for new IQ tests, groups of participants are required to take the old and new versions of IQ tests to ensure the results of the two tests correlate. In 1981 James R Flynn began a process of examining the results from the older and newer versions of these tests and noticed that there was a significant gain in IQ points between the population that took the test originally and the population that took the same test when helping to establish the norms for the revised versions of the tests (Maltby & Macaskill, 2010).

    • Length: 2138 words
  18. A Discussion on Whether Only Biology Can Provide an Adequate Explanation of Personality

    These responses to stimuli were originally suggested by Pavlov when he demonstrated that conditioned dogs prepared to eat when a bell was rung even if there was no food provided (Pavlov & Anrep, 2003), and it was Pavlov's work that helped shape Jeffrey Gray's contribution to another biological theory of personality (P. Corr & Perkins, 2006). Gray suggested that there are the two mechanisms of the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioural approach system (BAS), with the BIS being activated by stimuli from negative reinforcement and the BAS being activated by positive reinforcement.

    • Length: 2177 words
  19. A Review of the Social-Cognition Approach to Explaining Rape

    At its heart, this approach assumes that in order to understand social behaviour, we must examine the cognitive constructs associated with that behaviour (Ostrom, 1994). This review will cover some of the most recent and valuable research on the cognitive factors of rape, evaluate their contribution to our understanding of rape and to recommend future directions. Up to the mid-1980s, only a small number of studies addressed the role of cognitive factors in rape. More recently, the importance of cognitive factors in understanding and treating of sexual offenders has been highlighted by numerous researchers (Abel, et al., 1984; Abel & Rouleau, 1990; Hanson, et al., 1994; Marolla & Scully, 1986), yet still more attention has been given to other approaches.

    • Length: 4469 words
  20. Depression in Old Age. From an uncritical viewpoint, it would be reasonable to associate old-age depression with being nothing more than a natural part of the ageing process. Burtons famous book, the Anatomy of Melancholy, contained the pessimistic wor

    The diagnosis of dysthymia requires fewer symptoms but symptoms must be present for at least two years with no symptom-free periods of 2 months or more. Other commonly used diagnostic categories include Mood Disorder due to a General Medical Condition, and Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (Qualls & Knight, 2006). It has been frequently argued in the literature (Qualls & Knight, 2006; Baldwin, 2002;) that the DSM-IV is not as accurate as they should be for diagnosing depressive illness, especially for late-late depression.

    • Length: 4467 words
  21. Describe the features of, and major factors contributing to, drug and alcohol abuse and dependence

    Here the broad features of abuse and dependence and the main contributing factors are described. Abuse of or dependence on drugs or alcohol are known as substance disorders, this does not imply that a person is suffering a mental disorder, but rather that the substance impairs management of day to day functioning because their use has become out of control. (Widiger, & Smith, 2002). The main features of substance disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychological Association, 1994)

    • Length: 2500 words
  22. The influence of clincian's background and values in the interview

    A consideration of culture is very important for the clincian in the process of the interview, diagnosis, and treatment. It is because clinicians need to formulate an precise diagnosis and treatment plan which will be most acceptable for their patient. Doing the assessment with minority patients is much more complex than doing the assessment with nonminority patients, especially when the patient has a different cultural or ethnic background from the clinician. Clinicians are required to develop culturally competent knowledge, attitudes, and skills.

    • Length: 2089 words
  23. Modern research has shown that depression is a biological disease, because it can be effectively treated by drugs critically evaluate this claim.

    Diagnosis of depression is done by means of behavioural self report and/or observation. There are two schemes which are in use at the present time: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM IV, 1994) classifies depression as a psychological disorder (of a one off nature), under Axis 1, and the International Classification of Disease (ICD10; WHO 1993) which classifies depression as either a Depressive Episode, or Dysthymia (a person with a propensity to depression - more long term in nature).

    • Length: 2046 words
  24. Person Centred Therapy Core Conditions

    Closely interlinked with the instinct to self-actualise is the need to achieve positive-self regard (self-esteem, self-worth and a positive self-image) and positive regard from external sources (love, attention and affection). Often in the client's life, positive regard has been conditional and dependent on them fulfilling certain conditions of worth. Becoming a fully functioning human being requires being able to use one's own organismic valuing process, which maximises the potential to achieve self-actualisation and become the true self. However, the dysfunctional human being lives to meet the conditions of worth of others in order to acquire love and respect.

    • Length: 1864 words
  25. Psychological Transitiond

    Indeed, even when we are unhappy with how things are, what is known and familiar is generally preferable to what is unknown. This certainly applies to the break-up of my relationship with my ex-boyfriend, who had become increasingly verbally and physically abusive towards me. Despite being extremely unhappy in the present situation and being aware that the relationship was doomed to failure, I was afraid to break free and fearful of being alone. Furthermore, starting afresh would involve the daunting task of rebuilding my self-esteem, which at the time I did not feel capable of.

    • Length: 2345 words

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and contrast the two sleep disorders REM sleep behavioural disorder and sleep walking.

    "Conclusion Sleep is a state of rest which is necessary for survival. During sleep there is a cyclic change in brain activity between relaxed (non-REM) and highly active (REM) states. These cyclic changes are regulated by structures in the brain stem, thalamus and hypothalamus using different neurotransmitter systems. Abnormalities in these brain structures and neurotransmitter imbalances can lead to sleep disturbances known as parasomnias. Sleepwalking and RBD are two examples which may seem similar regarding their symptoms but differ substantially in their pathologies. The main distinction between them is that episodes are happening in different phases of sleep (in non-REM for sleepwalking and REM for RBD). For both, a heritable component is suggested but causes remain largely unknown. In addition to reports from patients and their partners about sleeping habits, polysomography is the most efficient tool for distinguishing between the two parasomnias. This distinction is not only important with regards to subsequent treatment. It also has significant implications for patients' future prognoses since RBD is a key indicator for neurodegenerative disorders, which can develop as much as 13 years after diagnosis of RBD."

  • To what extent are affective mood disorders biologically determined?

    "After looking at all the evidence and both sets of view, I am unable to draw to a conclusive answer as to whether mood disorders are biologically determined. However, I believe that the organic explanations, in my view, are far more convincing than the psychogenic explanations. It seems that the levels of norepinephrine and/or serotonin affect the mood of the person and antidepressant medications relieve depression. This suggests that depression and mania are biologically determined. With regard to gender differences, I believe that women tend to be diagnosed more than men due to cultural differences i.e. women tend more often to seek help and therefore are diagnosed more. In conclusion, no current theories have been proved as of yet and I have an open mind as to any other explanations that may cause depression or mania."

  • In order to compare and contrast both Focusing-Oriented and Experiential therapies to Classical Person-Centred theory it is important to look at each in turn to understand what they are

    "The final feature of Rennie's experiential approach is metacommunication where 'the counsellor makes visible the belief that there is a fundamental equality between counsellor and client' (Baker, 2008:54). This idea again is a deeply person-centred view of the relationship but I find slightly contradictory to the 'experts' stance of process direction. In summary, both F-OC and Rennie's Experiential approach to therapy demonstrate their person-centred roots. That said they also clearly show their differences and the move away from 'classical' theory. It is obvious that both view the 'classical' six necessary and sufficient conditions as necessary but not sufficient with the introduction of 'techniques' beyond that of Rogers original tenets. They also both work in ways that cannot be considered non-directive with therapists of both approaches taking a lead and directing the sessions from time to time. Gendlin's F-OC has a belief in the actualising tendency and this is also hinted at with Rennie's approach with the client agency."

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