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University Degree: Clinical Psychology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
  1. nature and nurture

    Monozygotic twins share exactly the same genes, while dizygotic twins share an average half of each other's genetic information. From Holland et al study, biologist conclude that MZ twins share exactly the same genetic information, therefore if one MZ twin has an eating disorder that is determined entirely genetically, then the other twin must also have it, due to the fact that they both have the same genetic structure. Further researches have been done to support the findings of Holland et al like the study on bulimia by Kendler et al 1991. From Kendler et al study he found out that there are genetic risk factors involved in bulimia nervosa (a form of eating disorder).

    • Word count: 769
  2. Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia

    Research to prove this comes twin studies of MZ and DZ twins. Gottesman and Shields found a higher concordance rate of MZ twins both having the disorder than DZ twins who only share 50% of their genes, although the concordance rate was not 100%. This certainly highlights the huge influence genetics have on inheriting the condition however, if genetics were the sole cause we would expect the MZ twins to have 100% concordance which leaves the possibilities for factors. Although MZ twin studies have the advantage of controlling for genetics they are not unable to control the environment.

    • Word count: 920
  3. explanations for abnormality and eating disorders

    Disorders arise when the ego is weakened and there is imbalance betweens id, ego, and the superego. Such a conflict may result in psychological disorders. The idea of the psychodynamic approach is approved by some, as psychoanalysis indeed has some benefits for some patients. Some anxiety disorders can actually be explained by childhood trauma (Barlow and Durand, 1995), and there is some evidence supporting the concept of both repressed and recovered memory as well as some evidence of mental disorder in such patients. Kline (1988) also argues that just because psychodynamic theory lacks scientific validity, this does not mean the theory is of no value.

    • Word count: 821
  4. Over the years there has always been lots of debate over peoples figures and inevitably the eating disorders that follow from people trying to change their bodies into something more 'preferable', or at least different to what they are at the moment.

    From this he found that 781 of them were later hospitalised due to anorexia. 5 of these females that became anorexic had experienced trauma as a baby therefore showing a connection where brain damage caused by this trauma, could increase the risk of anorexia. * Lambe et al found that people with anorexia whose weight returned to normal had reduced grey matter in their brain. This could suggest that anorexia could be caused by brain damage, or the anorexia could have changed the structure of the brain. There are very few researches backing up the theory of Neuroanatomy (brain damage)

    • Word count: 850
  5. Girl Interrupted Diagnosis and Treatment

    It also can take away the emptiness that they may be feeling. The best way to treat a person with this type of disorder is psychotherapy, which in the past has showed some improvement for people with borderline personality disorder. It is important in psychodynamic therapy for Kaysen to focus on the central relationship disturbance, poor sense of self, and pervasive loneliness and emptiness. This can be combined with cognitive-behavioral approaches to help the patient, or Kaysen in this case, to recognize the perspectives of others.

    • Word count: 534
  6. Describe one explanation of anorexia nervosa and evaluate this explanation using research studies and/or alternative explanations

    Although, families generally share the same home environment and so other factors may therefore have a causal influence. Foe example, the child may have learned the dysfunctional eating behaviours through simply observing their parents or siblings eating behaviour. Psychologists have therefore looked at evidence obtained from twin studies. There are two types of twins; monozygotic which are genetically identical and come from the same egg and dizygotic which are not genetically identical and come from two separate eggs. Holland (1984)

    • Word count: 933
  7. Mental Illness

    So I am able to stop some of his behavior. He gets upset with me because I am able to figure out what he is going to do before he does it and he never is able to understand how I know what he is up to. He doesn't have a clue that he gives himself away or how I am able to figure out what he is up to. The medical model is the model of mental illness that I am most familiar with.

    • Word count: 992
  8. "Outline and discuss the role of language in the human brain."

    The area is called Broca's area and the condition of damage to it is called Broca's aphasia. Wernicke reported a different aphasia. Patient's could speak in organised and grammatical sentences, although what they said seemed to have little to do with the on going conversation. On the other hand they seemed to have no understanding of what was spoken to them. On autopsy, they all had damage to an area at the top of the left temporal lobe, now known as Wernicke's area.

    • Word count: 667
  9. Anxiety discussion.

    "More than nineteen million American adults are affected by these debilitating illnesses each year. Children and adolescents may also develop anxiety disorders." (www.nimh.nih.gov) Expert Opinion: Twenty-five percent of the world's population will suffer from at least one type of anxiety disorder in his or her lifetime. Experts conclude that most people who suffer from an anxiety disorder have dealt with the disorder since adolescence or childhood. "In the anxiety disorders, which include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post traumatic disorder, the level of distress and impairment in all aspects of daily functioning is far from trivial."

    • Word count: 788
  10. Antisocial Personality Disorder : Psychopathy.

    An adult with antisocial personality disorder reveals irresponsible behaviors, like breaking the law and being reckless. I will be referring to the story of a young man's life, named Bill, who has shown implications of antisocial behavior all his life as I discuss the implications behind antisocial personality disorder. What biological and psychological inconsistencies are researchers finding that are a basis for this disorder? There are several areas that are related to antisocial behaviors. The first of these factors being the role of the family. As in the story of Bill, his father was known in the neighborhood as being an alcoholic and frequently out of work.

    • Word count: 712
  11. Is Multiple Personality Disorder a Valid Diagnosis?

    In the past, as noted by Mr. McHugh's somewhat sarcastic counterpoint, they were categorized under "hysterical neurosis" which, incidentally, takes its namesake from the Greek root word for uterus; primarily a "wandering uterus" thought to cause such hysterical problems in women! Even though Multiple Personality Disorders share some features with what he refers to as "hysteria" the DSM-IV stringently outlines presenting features that overtly differentiate the two classes. In his dissenting argument, Mr. McHugh argues rather feebly that MPD (now DID) is a "socially created artifact" drawing on archaic and stereotyped behaviors of what appears cloaked in the obscurity of Hypochondria (a somatoform disorder.)

    • Word count: 855
  12. A brief look at dyslexia.

    In other studies of students with dyslexia, Downey & Hill in 2000 found that the underlying deficit in reading difficulties in children is in their phonological processing, that is, the process whereby readers attach letters to sounds & analyse sound segments. In a recent study by Fawcett, it was also found that children show a reduction in their speed of articulation. Normal adults have little or no consciousness of the many skills fundamental to speech, such as fine motor control.

    • Word count: 673
  13. Recognizing Signs of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Teens.

    OCD cannot always be evident in behavior, but may be something the student is not doing. First, we were introduced to Peter who insisted to have his lunch stapled together for his fear of being poisoned by another student, and his need to repeat prayers to himself. He was also very careful to not let any letters touch each other while he was writing. Second, we learned about Peter's unwillingness to write in his journal for fear of writing freehand because of possibility of many grammar or spelling mistakes. Last, we read about Ashley's incapability to stop tapping on her desk.

    • Word count: 991
  14. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Some of those afflicted are so fearful of the imaginary dangers that they often refuse to leave the solace of their own homes. People with obsessive compulsive disorder are bombarded with obsessive thoughts that make them feel worried or scared. To handle that fear they revert to compulsive behavior. While compulsive behavior helps deal with those obsessions, the relief is only temporary, and the obsession always returns. The inability to rid oneself of uncontrollable thoughts, or to keep from performing ritualistic acts over and over again, produces intense anxiety and distress.

    • Word count: 835
  15. To what extent does research evidence (theory and/or studies) support the view that anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia nervosa are caused by biological factors?

    Holland et. al's twin study also provided a lot of proof that genetics do play a part in the development of eating disorders - his study was based on the theory that monozygotic twins (who share identical genetic makeups) would have a higher chance of both members of the pair developing anorexia nervosa than dizygotic twins (who have genetically non-identical DNA). His findings were that out of the 34 twin pairs (and one set of triplets), 56% of the 16 monozygotic twins were concordant for anorexia (both members of the pair had the disorder),and 7% of the dizygotic pairs were concordant.

    • Word count: 878
  16. The term sociopath.

    (Carson, Butcher, Mineka) While Donald was in prison he took part in a psychological study as a subject. After he was released he applied for admission to a university, claiming that he had been a colleague of the researcher. (Carson, Butcher, Mineka) Donald was the youngest of three boys, born to a father who was moody and drank heavily and a mother who tried to please her husband and "preserve family harmony" (Carson, Butcher, Mineka:361). When Donald and his brothers got into trouble, their mother would threaten to tell their father, but often decided not to because she did not want to upset him.

    • Word count: 959
  17. There are four main branches of psychology.

    They are involved in the devising and developing of rehabilitation programmes for long-term psychiatric patients. Furthermore they also plan and carry out behaviour therapy and modification programmes and work in law enforcement assessing the mental state of defendants and witnesses in court cases, and they are also involved in assessment of patients in prisons and prison hospitals such as Carstairs or Broadmoor. ACADEMIC psychologists can be found in teaching posts in universities and polytechnic colleges.They are also involved in research, dealing in ways in which knowledge is attained, retained and used.

    • Word count: 539
  18. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Throughout the years many assessments and tests have been developed to help psychologists diagnose disorders in individuals

    (Austin, 1994). The MMPI was developed with collaboration from both psychologists and psychiatrists working together to get the same outcome, a better way to help diagnose individuals with a mental illness. Before the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed, personality assessment techniques were used to help the emerging diagnostic needs of psychologists working under psychiatrists. It was difficult to develop a test that would be broadly accepted in clinical practice. The purpose of the MMPI was to represent general psychiatric terms.

    • Word count: 792

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and contrast the two sleep disorders REM sleep behavioural disorder and sleep walking.

    "Conclusion Sleep is a state of rest which is necessary for survival. During sleep there is a cyclic change in brain activity between relaxed (non-REM) and highly active (REM) states. These cyclic changes are regulated by structures in the brain stem, thalamus and hypothalamus using different neurotransmitter systems. Abnormalities in these brain structures and neurotransmitter imbalances can lead to sleep disturbances known as parasomnias. Sleepwalking and RBD are two examples which may seem similar regarding their symptoms but differ substantially in their pathologies. The main distinction between them is that episodes are happening in different phases of sleep (in non-REM for sleepwalking and REM for RBD). For both, a heritable component is suggested but causes remain largely unknown. In addition to reports from patients and their partners about sleeping habits, polysomography is the most efficient tool for distinguishing between the two parasomnias. This distinction is not only important with regards to subsequent treatment. It also has significant implications for patients' future prognoses since RBD is a key indicator for neurodegenerative disorders, which can develop as much as 13 years after diagnosis of RBD."

  • To what extent are affective mood disorders biologically determined?

    "After looking at all the evidence and both sets of view, I am unable to draw to a conclusive answer as to whether mood disorders are biologically determined. However, I believe that the organic explanations, in my view, are far more convincing than the psychogenic explanations. It seems that the levels of norepinephrine and/or serotonin affect the mood of the person and antidepressant medications relieve depression. This suggests that depression and mania are biologically determined. With regard to gender differences, I believe that women tend to be diagnosed more than men due to cultural differences i.e. women tend more often to seek help and therefore are diagnosed more. In conclusion, no current theories have been proved as of yet and I have an open mind as to any other explanations that may cause depression or mania."

  • In order to compare and contrast both Focusing-Oriented and Experiential therapies to Classical Person-Centred theory it is important to look at each in turn to understand what they are

    "The final feature of Rennie's experiential approach is metacommunication where 'the counsellor makes visible the belief that there is a fundamental equality between counsellor and client' (Baker, 2008:54). This idea again is a deeply person-centred view of the relationship but I find slightly contradictory to the 'experts' stance of process direction. In summary, both F-OC and Rennie's Experiential approach to therapy demonstrate their person-centred roots. That said they also clearly show their differences and the move away from 'classical' theory. It is obvious that both view the 'classical' six necessary and sufficient conditions as necessary but not sufficient with the introduction of 'techniques' beyond that of Rogers original tenets. They also both work in ways that cannot be considered non-directive with therapists of both approaches taking a lead and directing the sessions from time to time. Gendlin's F-OC has a belief in the actualising tendency and this is also hinted at with Rennie's approach with the client agency."

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