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University Degree: Clinical Psychology
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Closely interlinked with the instinct to self-actualise is the need to achieve positive-self regard (self-esteem, self-worth and a positive self-image) and positive regard from external sources (love, attention and affection). Often in the client's life, positive regard has been conditional and dependent on them fulfilling certain conditions of worth. Becoming a fully functioning human being requires being able to use one's own organismic valuing process, which maximises the potential to achieve self-actualisation and become the true self. However, the dysfunctional human being lives to meet the conditions of worth of others in order to acquire love and respect.
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What is it about different psychological research areas that necessitates the use of different research methods?
This evidence suggests that self-report measures provide a promising approach to understanding the causes of mental disorders. However, in a study by Wormith (1986; as cited in Gray, Brown, MacCulloch & Smith, 2005) a self report measure misclassified 17% of the paedophiles as normal. This incorrect classification suggests that self report measures are not particularly reliable and individuals can deliberately fake their answers, making it difficult to get an insight into forensic problems in a meaningful manner. Research on sexual deviancy also uses actuarial measures, such as Dolan and Doyle's (2000) review of the current status of risk prediction research.
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Describe the nature and significance of Type D (disorganised) attachment in infancy and early childhood
An experiment was contacted by Kochanska (2001) with infants of 9 to 33 months old in order to find out how each children type is expressing their emotions in laboratory episodes. These episodes affected the type D infants and constituted with angry behaviour (cited in Understanding children's development book, Fourth edition, chapter 4, page 96). Main and Solomon (1986, 1990), found that infants with type D attachment have nothing in common in their behaviour with the other three types. In bizarre circumstances may be incongruous such as not giving attention to the caregiver.
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It defines five types of specific phobia: animal, natural environment (heights, storms, water), blood-injection, situational (flying, driving, lifts), and other (choking, vomiting, sound), as well as social phobia and agoraphobia. The former, specific phobias differ in a number of ways, and of particular interest for this essay, in treatment success rates (Beck, 1985). Phobias and their treatments have been an area of interest for centuries; Freud's (1909) Little Hans and Watson and Rayner's (1920) Little Albert are two of the most cited examples.
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Although some animals have the ability to see in the infra-red, and on first glance, this would seem to be a highly valuable skill, because of our warm blood, this would merely result in us only seeing the glow from our own blood (Bowmaker, 1983). Colour vision relies on us possessing these photoreceptors in our retinas, otherwise known as 'cones', that have sensitivity to certain wavelengths along the visual spectrum. A photoreceptor that responds most to a wavelength of 550-570nm, for example would be able to detect a yellowy-green colour.
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There are several ways to do this, each producing different sorts of data that can be analysed or collated in different ways. They all aim to highlight aspects of a person's behaviour or personality in order to infer a mental disturbance of some kind, or allow for this to occur. One type of data is qualitative, deeply detailed data that is mainly obtained in this area through clinical interviews. This requires the interviewer to pay considerable attention to not only the client's responses themselves but also the manner in which they are expressed and with what emotion they are accompanied.
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All personality theories seek to explain personality as qualities or characteristics which represent the person as an individual (unit 8, section 2, pp.32). This essay will now look at these explanations as four broad approaches; let us look at these approaches from a holistic model point of view and we will see that the different theories emphasise different dimensions of the person who of course is at the center of the holistic model: * Biological: The biological approach takes into account the psychological dimension of the holistic model.
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The figures show that eating disorders and the physiological effects of it such as pneumonia and heart failure account for 10% of deaths. 27% of deaths are caused by suicide which suggests that eating disorders may affect the sufferer psychologically more than physically. Article 1 is different from Article 2 from the obvious point that article 1 has been written from a person suffering herself whilst article 2 highlights ways in which the disorder is hidden and figures. They are also from different sources; article 1 is from The Observer whereas article 2 is from Zest magazine therefore the audience is going to be different.
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Various mental tests showed his disorders as having difficulty organizing ideas and lack of words. It was apparent that he suffered major depressive disorder. Then regular doses of the fluoxetine improved his academic and social abilities to the point where he admitted to a college and was functioning properly after eighteen months of medication. Major depressive disorder is an extreme psychotic condition that follows one end of an unipolar disorder. Major depression is a broad disorder where different people are affected in different ways. Physically, major depression disorder is a chemical imbalance in the brain that causes feelings of gloominess and utter worthlessness.
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These veterans displayed a diverse array of problems that lingered much longer than expected (Weiten, 2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder was not recognised as a formal diagnosis in the psychiatry until 1980. In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association added posttraumatic stress disorder to the third edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) nosologic Classification Scheme. Although controversial when first introduced the posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis has filled an important gap in psychiatry theory and practice. Posttraumatic stress disorder is unique among psychiatric diagnoses because of the great importance placed upon the traumatic stressor, in fact a posttraumatic
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An understanding of biological processes can begin to explain how the functioning of the brain and nervous system, can lead to specific behaviours. Technology is now so advanced that it allows for the brain to be scanned, using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a non-invasive imaging technique, while the participant undergoes certain tasks, such as clenching a fist or recalling memories. The region of brain involved can be seen to be active on the scan. This area of biology can make a valuable contribution to our understanding of certain behaviours, as it allows comparisons to be made between different participants.
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For a classification system to be reliable, different health officials should agree on the same diagnosis in a patient, although this is often difficult to achieve, Di Nardo showed in 1993 that there was 70% agreement in a study, demonstrating that a third of clinicians fail to reach a consensus (Archives of General Psychiatry (50) p251-256 1993). However, it has been argued that reliability cannot be achieved in view of the fact that doctors extract information about a patient using different techniques, they also have different standards of training and come from different social backgrounds.
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In recent years, more focus has been turned towards the diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Bipolar disorder has been showing up in children and adolescents at an increasing rate and taken many mental health professionals by surprise. Approximately one million American children and adolescents suffer from this dreadful illness, (Kluger et al., 2002). However, while adults suffer across the bipolar continuum the literature suggest that children and adolescents display symptomatology of the most severe form of the illness. The clinical presentation of bipolar disorder in children (manic) usually manifests itself as ". . . worsening of disruptive behavior, moodiness, difficulty sleeping at night, impulsivity, hyperactivity, . . . an inability to concentrate. . . .
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Hyperactivity and impulsivity is diagnosed by symptoms including fidgeting, talking excessively, running around excessively, especially at inappropriate times. Interrupting others and difficulty waiting turns and in engaging in activities quietly. The combined type is when the individual meets both sets of the inattention and hyperactivity and impulsivity disorders. All children act in ways that could be viewed as inattentive or hyperactive and impulsive; the main symptoms of ADHD. Everyone daydreams, interrupts, blurts out information or becomes impatient and restless at times, but not everyone has ADHD.
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The first logged description of ADHD was made in 1902 by George Still, an English doctor. He recorded his observations about a group of young patients who were hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive. He concluded that their condition was biological rather than environmental (Wright 16). After the Great Depression, interest increased, as it was referred to by different names. During the 1940s, this condition was described as "minimal brain damage." It was later determined that there was no evidence of brain damage. During the 1950s, it was called "hyperkinetic impulse disorder." It was around this time period that medication was introduced as a treatment.
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Describe the principal techniques of behavioral therapy and show how any two of them may be applied in the treatment of an anxiety disorder - What are the merits and demerits of this type of approach to psychological disorders?
Relaxation inhibits any anxiety that might be elicited by the object, as it is difficult to be relaxed and anxious at the same time. After having learnt to relax, the client and therapist construct a hierarchy of the anxiety-producing stimuli. The situations are ranked in order from the one that produces the least anxiety to the one that is most fearful. In systematic desensitisation the client is then asked to relax and imagine each situation in the hierarchy, starting with the one that is least anxiety producing.
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and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 10). The first edition of DSM in 1952 was influenced by Meyer and Menninger, and reflected the prevailing acceptance of psychoanalytic ideas in the USA. The most recent edition, DSM III (1980), contains many innovations (including a revised nonclemanture) and its revision, DSM IIIR, has remedied some of its faults (for example, by removing some diagnostic hierarchies). The fourth edition is awaited. ICD first included mental disorders in Edition 6, and in 1959 Stengel recommended a new approach based on operational definition.
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the patient seems to possess an unlimited amount of energy. They may start to stay up all night, take part in endless conversations that run from one topic to another, smash up furniture, run around constantly, sleep rarely, spend all their money on gambling, or create huge plans on how to build a new school. People in a manic state will always seem busy and the constant stream of activities, if not stopped, will eventually take a huge toll on the patient's health. People that suffer from depression may feel dejected, sinful, worthless and a failure and lose interest in people around them.
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The reductionist approach is helpful in certain cases, but has little to offer in others - most psychologists with an interest in biology would agree that while biological explanations are helpful, not everything can be explained in these terms. An integrated approach is needed - biological and psychological processes interact in complex ways, and looking at biological processes along with environmental effects gives a better understanding in many areas of psychology. This integrated perspective is termed the biological psychology approach (Toates, 2002)
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A World of Obsession - My uncle suffers from a somewhat serious form of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
In order to attempt to understand these compulsions, I wanted to research OCD and discover what causes this strange disorder The neurotic thoughts may range from the idea of losing control, to themes surrounding religion or keeping things or parts of one's body clean at all times. Compulsions are behaviors that help reduce the anxiety surrounding the obsessions. Ninety percent of people who have OCD display both obsessions and compulsions. The thoughts and behaviors a person with OCD has are senseless, repetitive, distressing, and sometimes harmful, but they are also incredibly difficult to overcome.
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What does an understanding of biological processes offer to psychological explanations? Support your argument with examples and research.
This essay will look at biological processes associated with behaviour, based on evidence produced from selected studies, to illuminate this debate and address these questions. Biological processes of interest to psychologists concern the brain and nervous system. The brain has a right and left hemisphere which are divided into lobes, each with particular associated functions. Neurons are specialized electrically charged cells, specific to the brain and nervous system, responsible for transfer of information. Action potentials travel down the neuronal process to the presynaptic neuron where they stimulate the release of chemical �key-like' neurotransmitters into the synaptic junction between cells.
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The character Theo, the oldest son discovered he had the condition at the late age of 17. His teacher at his final year of high school and looked into his situation and discovered the problem, however what I was particularly baffled about was the way the family was so happy when they learnt of his diagnosis. I now have learnt that the family was relieved to find an actual problem with their son, as he did truly try to study and work hard at school even though he received poor results. Now that the 'Huckstubles' (The family)
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Psychologists are interested in the nervous system and the way that the neurons function or, more specifically, malfunction.
This leads researchers to believe that depression, which can be brought about by either genetic or environmental factors, is (at the biological level) a change in the chemical activity at the neuron's synapses [Miell, Phoenix and Thomas, 2002, p276]. Without an understanding of the nervous system and synaptic function this kind of treatment would not be possible and previously sufferers of this disease would have gone untreated. Depression is a good example of a mental illness that has been found to have an inherited susceptibility factor, but this is not exclusive or determinant [Anisman and Zacharko, 1982, citied in Miell, Phoenix and Thomas, 2002, p276].
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Another characteristic is that the individual has very distorted thinking about their body image. Self-evaluation depends excessively on shape and weight, and there is a discrepancy between estimation of body size and actual body size as found by Cooper ('95). c) Psychologists have tried to account for anorexia nervosa in many ways, including genetic and cognitive factors, looking at brain abnormalities, events in childhood and social factors. There is a lot of evidence that genetic factors are important in determining whether an individual is susceptible to the illness as there is an increased risk of a close relative to the sufferer also developing the disorder.
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