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University Degree: Cognitive Psychology
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Is schizophrenia caused by genetic (nature) or environmental (nurture) factors? Critically discuss with reference to both psychological theory and research.
Schizophrenia is generally characterised by disturbances in Thoughts, e.g., delusions, Perception, e.g., hallucinations, Language, e.g., disconnected ideas and Affect e.g., flattening of emotion. For a diagnosis, symptoms must have been present for six months and include at least one month of active symptom (DSM - 5). . Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time there are three different types of symptoms associated with schizophrenia: ?positive symptoms?, ?negative symptoms? and ?catatonia and inappropriate effect.
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It is believed that NREM is the sleep phase in which the majority of mental development and maintenance occurs. Research has shown support for this in studies where it was found that declarative and non-procedural memory was improved after short periods of slow wave sleep when compared with control participants who were subjected to mild sleep deprivation. (Tucker et al, 2006) One function of sleep identified through research findings is the maintenance of mental health. Sleep deprivation can cause an increase in the likelihood depressive symptoms or disorders such as anxiety in an individual.
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it plays in manipulating and integrating visual and linguistic resources to distinct executive tasks, the notion that it forms a unitary structure still remains tentative. Instead, more recent studies have argued that the central executive may in fact be fractionated into further sub-components, thus suggesting that this theoretical construct is more diverse than previously thought. This paper will therefore attempt to examine and evaluate some of the evidence put forth in recent findings, in an attempt to reconcile these opposing perspectives.
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Compare and contrast theories of perception which emphasize top-down processing against those which emphasize bottom-up processing. How useful is this distinction in the study of perception?
Whilst these theories appear polarized, I will argue that to take either a top-down or bottom-up approach is not necessarily a useful distinction and that current research to support a dual process approach. A bottom-up strategy suggests that perception is achieved from information received from the senses (Pike & Edgar, 2005). Gibson argued that everything that is needed for perception can be found directly from the stimuli. He went so far as to postulate that no cognitive process or memory was required for a person act within the environment (Pike & Edgar, 2005).
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