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University Degree: Developmental Psychology
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For this assignment I will produce a case study showing how psychological theories can be used to explain human behaviour.
Ainsworth and Bell (1970) classified the children to be in one of three groups, which were secure, insecure and avoidant. The stranger situation takes place in a laboratory with a set arrangement of attractive toys and furniture. The infants have to be mobile and aged between 12-18 months. In the stranger situation the following sequence of events take place: 1. The mother and child are introduced to the room. 2. The mother and child are left alone and the child can investigate the toys.
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best characterized their feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. These authors naively took for granted that Ainsworth et al. (1978) were correct in thinking of attachment patterns (usually called "attachment styles" by social psychologists) as categories or types. In retrospect, it is evident that Hazan and Shaver should have paid attention to Ainsworth et al.'s Figure 10 (p. 102), which summarized the results of a discriminant analysis predicting infant attachment type (secure, anxious, or avoidant) from the continuous rating scales used by coders to characterize the infants' behavior in a laboratory "Strange Situation."
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The experiment had three phases. In the First Phase his assistant attached a capsule to the dog's salivary gland in order that the salivary flow might be measured. The dog was then tied up in front of a pan in which meat powder could be delivered automatically. On being presented with the meat powder the dog would always salivate. This was a natural reflex; an unconditioned response (UCR) for no learning was involved. Pavlov wanted to see if external stimuli could affect this process. The dog would only salivate on production of the meat powder; the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), and not to any neutral stimulus
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Davenport (1994,p.113) suggests that in the family home environment if there is a temporary or permanent separation of the parents this can result in emotional difficulties. Theorist like Freud believed that everybody has many defence mechanisms these are through the unconscious mind but they are perfectly normal ways of dealing with our anxieties. Freud psychoanalysis was intended to be able to free these anxieties and then they can be repressed back into the unconscious (in Bee, 2003 p 339). Freud than encouraged the child to face whatever caused the anxiety and then they were able to overcome the problem (in Davenport, 1994 p.120).
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What do we know about the nature of cognitive development during adolescence? What factors seem to facilitate cognitive development during this period?
What has research shown about the relative importance of parents and peers to adolescents? In your answer, pay particular attention to the role of parents and peers in relation to adolescent advice-seeking and compliance to advice. The importance of parent and peer relationships for adolescents has been the focus of much research. Peer relationships provide adolescents with the opportunity to learn how to interact with others and also provide support in defining identity, interests, abilities and personality (Field, 2002). Although the significance of peer relationships grows during adolescence, the parent-child relationship maintains its importance for the psychological development of the child (Steinberg, 1998).
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HTML). Erikson's core characteristics were also similar to Freud "except that the ego is considered to be partially innate and there is less emphasis on all behaviour being defensive". (Web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/linksum. HTML). Erik Erikson was a personality in principle develops according to steps predetermined in the growing person's readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of and to interact with a widening social radius. Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany on June 15, 1902. He later died in Harwich, Massachusetts, 1994.
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Alex is 61/2 months in the first segment and it is obvious that he has moved on from the second sub-stage and he is now aware of objects in his immediate environment. Alex reaches for the keys and touches them first with his fingers and then grasps them in his palm. This action seems to be very imprecise and it is obvious that his sensori-motor functions are, as yet undeveloped. He rattles the keys with obvious interest, seen in the repetition of this action.
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The effectiveness of punishment to control and modify behaviour is one that is controversial. There have been many cases where the use of punishment on children with developmental disabilities has helped to eliminate self-injuries and self stimulating behaviors. Many other times, the administering of punishment only served to decrease or stop a behaviour temporarily (Miltenberger, 2001). However, most people still believe that punishment works because they use it in their everyday life and are themselves subjected to it. This essay will go further in depth to cover what punishment is and its effectiveness particularly with the focus on children.
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John Bowlby (1951) belived that a strong attachment to a mother figure was essential for a childs healthy psychological development - Discuss.
This was the start of his attachment theory and he went on to hypothesis his controversial maternal deprivation theory. According to Bowlby breaking the maternal bond with the child during its early years has serious implications as the child grows up and reaches adulthood. Some of the problems are intellectual and linguistic retardation, affectionless psychopathy, juvenile delinquency, depression, and bed wetting and deprivation dwarfism. Affectionless psychopathy is the inability to care and have deep feelings for other people together with the inability to experience guilt. Bowlby claimed that these problems were permanent and irreversible. The short term effects of maternal deprivation were broken down into three stages; Protest-a very intense stage, the child cries most of the time and seems very panic stricken.
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This is Piaget's first stage of cognitive development. This stage is further divided into six separate stages. Stages 3 and 4 were demonstrated at the beginning of the play session The children were sitting in a circle with toys placed in the middle. Rattles and other noise producing objects were given to the younger ones. The older children found their way to stuffed animals, books, and rubber balls. Seth (8 months old) was given a rattle that he repeatedly shook. The interesting sound that was placed into his hand encouraged him to engage in behavior that pleased him.
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In light of this knowledge the following contains an account of a personal realisation of the benefits of reflective thought, in relation to academic and work experiences. Paul McKenzie is 34 years old and has lives in London since birth. As a teenager the realisation that he had a passion for artistically creative pursuits heralded the start of a life long interest in design. However, he soon became disheartened by the lack of enthusiasm and encouragement tat he received from others. Indeed, from the outset, a school careers advisor from 'entertaining unrealistic notions' of becoming a book illustrator discouraged him.
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According to the natives these reasons may have been invasion, theft and domination - even to the conquerors and their sponsors - the reasons may have been the same, but to the general questioning public in Europe, the acts were legitimised by their need to help and civilise lower orders of humanity in the 'new world'. This notion of colonies requiring help and their inhabitants being needy was the result of their decline in character. Initially they were viewed as exotic cultural equals3.
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genetically primed to respond to certain influences, when at other times those influences would have little or no effect' (in Gross, 1987). Lorenz and other researchers induced goslings to imprint on many different objects including boxes, balls and watering cans. A further animal study involving eight separated monkeys, conducted by H.F.Harlow in 1959, produced surprising results. In each case the mother monkey was replaced in a heated enclosure by two wire 'surrogate mothers', one covered with a soft cloth, the other supporting a bottle containing food.
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He came up with the idea of �schemas� which are the basic building blocks of intelligence. Babies start out with minimal in-built schemas for things such as sucking and grasping and moving limbs. As the baby grows its schemas are refined and combined to create more complex schemas such as for walking. This development takes place through the processes of �assimilation�, �accommodation� and �equilibrium�. A baby will try and apply its schema of sucking its mother�s nipple to obtain nutrients to sucking a cup of juice; this is the baby�s attempt to assimilate the task of drinking from a cup into its existing schemata.
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An important assumption that must be taken into account with Piaget's theory is the fact that children are capable of constructing their own knowledge from their environment, and their ability to do so depends on the maturity or 'stage' of their cognitive development. Piaget's 'Staged Theory of Development' defined a number of crucial periods or trigger points that influence the development of cognitive skills throughout childhood. Piaget's understanding was that a transition through each stage must occur in order to move onto the next.
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Fabian and I met at a friends party about a year ago. From the first moment I saw him I thought he was cute. That made it even more exciting when he decided to approach me and talk to me
Fabian and I met at a friends party about a year ago. From the first moment I saw him I thought he was cute. That made it even more exciting when he decided to approach me and talk to me. I fell hard, and from that moment on I've had a major crush on him. Fall semester ended and that was that. It started and stopped at the initiating stage of the relationship. I had just about given up when we ran into each other at the same friends house.
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B.F. Skinner's Radical BehaviorismIntroductionThe utilization of rewards to modify classroom behavior is properly documented and established in literature
While EAB varies from other approaches to behavioral research on various theoretical and methodological points, radical behaviorism differs from methodological behaviorism most especially in accepting introspection and treatment of feelings as existing and scientifically treatable. This is performed by means of distinguishing them as something non-dualistic, and here Skinner espouses a divide-and-conquer method, with a number of instances being acknowledged with bodily conditions or behavior, and others obtaining a more comprehensive 'analysis' in terms of behavior. Nevertheless, radical behaviorism stops short of acknowledging feelings as reasons of behavior.
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(Fulcher, 2003) From previous research Pavlov was aware that when a dog is presented with food, it begins to salivate. He then repeatedly rang a bell (CS) before the food (UCS) was presented to the dog. The results of his research showed that before classical conditioning the UCS would result in an unconditioned response, UCR (salivation). Before classical conditioning, when the CS was presented alone, the dog showed no response. During classical conditioning the CS and the UCS were paired together resulting in a conditioned response, CR (salivation).
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The numerous chemoreceptors found in the skin at the anterior and in the pharynx (Grzimek 1974) are sensitive to meat juices and some species also possess rheoreceptors which are sensitive to water disturbances made by nearby prey (Meglitsch 1972). Touch receptive sense cells are located at the edges of the body and the light-sensitive eyespots (ocelli) possessed by many turbellarians, can determine the direction of a light source. At least two ocelli but often several more will be present. Turbellarians that lack ocelli respond to light via light-sensitive ectodermal cells (Grzimek 1974). Statocysts for monitoring gravity and low-frequency vibrations are found in acoels, a number of catenulids and many more highly evolved turbellarians (Grzimek 1974).
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The Inductive Service Development Framework, ISDF Bridging the Service and Software Development Processes.
We may broadly categorize two sets of services: the external services directly for sale (in-sourcing), and internal services in an organisation to support its own operation, often candidates for out-sourcing. Services are not products, however, they do need to be productified. Services are intangibles, but they are born, they live and they die. During their lifespan they most certainly have to be modified. The TQM process called kaizen, the Japanese word for continous improvement, is near at hand. In service research, clear definition and reification of the service in question is mandatory.
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Therefore, children's logic and modes of thinking are initially entirely different from those of adults (http://www.piaget.org). Piaget referred to his view as "constructivism," because he believed that the acquisition of knowledge is a process of continuous self-construction. While the child is constructing this knowledge, Piaget assumed there to be an interaction between heredity and environment and also labeled his view "interactionism" (Driscoll, 1994) Although major aspects of his theory were formed in the 1920s, Piaget's impact was not felt in the United States until the 1960s, when sufficient English translations of his more important books first became available and American psychology was ripe for a change (http://www.piaget.org).
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This theory implies that that children go through a lengthy process of trial and error, but children learn language extremely quickly, and the rules would not be picked up in as short a time as six years. The Nativists argue i that humans are biologically programmed to learn language (that it is in our 'nature' to pick up language). This is argues by Chomsky, he agrees language must be learned, but in some way we are programmed to pick up language, this explains that a child brought up in any country can effortlessly pick up the native language.
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Once one makes this connection, they will be equipped with the weapons needed to combat or dismantle situations that could result in conflict, and in turn, devise a strategy that will return more positive results for the whole. As previously mentioned, I experienced this type of empowerment first hand for the first time about two weeks ago. I am an active member of my community and participate in as many "causes" as my time will allow. As my available time has been more limited since the start of my experience here at Bridgepoint Education, I have been especially determined to make the best possible use of what time I do have, and try to get as much accomplished as App.
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a single general intelligence permeating a child's individual differences. (Smith, 2003). The essay will look, in particular, at Howard Gardner's (1984/98) work into multiple intelligence as an argument against a single ability. Psychologists also argued that the nature of intelligence was innate supporting the nature aspect of the continuing nature-nurture debate. The second part of the study would look at both these issues evaluating whether intelligence is an innate and single ability to a child. Part 1 Intelligence is a word used extensively by society as a whole both past and present, where people had different notions of what intelligence is historically compared to nowadays.
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2. First and second language acquisition in children (Type B) 3. Second language acquisition in adults and children (Type C) In type A comparison language and age are being manipulated. This type of comparison is probably the most traditional, but also the most difficult because of the vast differences, both mentally and physically, between a child and an adult. In Type B comparison, two comparisons are actually possible: 1) child acquiring L1 and L2 at the same time or, 2) child acquiring L2 at a later age. The first comparison would likely occur in a home where two languages are spoken or, like close friends of the writer, where the parents spoke the same language but the child (from the time he learnt to walk)
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