There is some dispute as to whether Vygotsky's theory is indeed a stage theory along with Piaget's. It is thought by Butterworth & Harris (1994) that both men's theories "share the assumption that development occurs in stages, although they differ in their main focus. Piaget's theory is most concerned with the mechanisms of intellectual development and the acquisition of knowledge. Whereas Vygotsky's main contribution was to our understanding of the way in which culture influences development, through language and the social and material structure of society".
Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.
Do they use key words from the title or question?
Do they answer the question directly?
Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
"In conclusion it is relatively easy to say that to a large extent there are cross-cultural variations in attachment as shown by the three examples from Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg's study. But the greater variation found within cultures undermines the cross-cultural research as it shows that it is wrong to think of one culture as a whole, and so cross-cultural comparisons based on this assumption lack validity. It is over-simplistic to view Britain or America as one single culture, as within each country there are many sub-cultures that may differ in the nature of attachment types. This means that the findings may not be representative of the culture.
Huckleberry Briscoe Psychology 08/05/2007 8:07 AM"
"In conclusion, it is evident that nonverbal communication is an important aspect of development. Facial expressions and body movements are important in the communication of meanings and emotions. Many argue that nonverbal communication is an innate phenomenon that develops into more complex actions as we age. However others argue that this is not the case and that we learn to use nonverbal communication as we interact with others. It is difficult to ascertain which of these two views are more plausible. While there is a lot of evidence, from experience and research, to suggest that our nonverbal communicative abilities are innate, the fact that we do seem to learn some behaviours cannot be discounted. It is more plausible that while we are born with the basic nonverbal expressions, the more complex expressions are learnt through social interaction.
"I think that Skinner is probably the most over rated psychologists of all time. Because, it is true that animal behaviour can be influenced in predictable ways by operant conditioning. However language and learning, human thinking and long-term planning and so on are fundamental to human psychology but they depend on very little on conditioning principles. Which is why I found Skinners approach very limited. However the overall research that I investigated, I found very interesting and felt that I could relate this to present situations."
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