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University Degree: Psychometrics
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This study will only look at two (of many) facial characteristics being symmetry and sexual dimorphism. It will also take a deeper look at female perceptions of these characteristics in relation to social competence. Thus, our hypothesis is that females w
Yet on the flip side of this research it has been found that a desire for some personality traits influences judgements of facial attractiveness, calling it "What is good is beautiful" hypotheses. The desires of and individual reflects their views of what is 'good' and in turn find faces of reflecting these desired traits attractive (Little et al., 2006). Moreover as this study is concerned with female perceptions of attractiveness and social competence in males it is important to note the findings that exist.
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Research examining personality, gender and culture has shown that links between these concepts are complex. To what extent does psychological evidence suggest that personality trait structure is universal
as a representation of the personality trait structure. Secondly, the universality of the FFM across culture will be examined and the Universality of Gender difference which will be assessed in order to illustrate the universality of the FFM. The concussion will be showed at the end. The "Big Five" personality traits model is more representative for personality traits structure Personality trait theories were developed over a central. It started with Gordon Allport, who believes that the psychoanalytic approach which was always going too deep and a behavioural approach which was not going deep enough, that are both limited for personality study (Allport & Odbert, 1936).
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In this analysis four different assessment tests are going to be measured and evaluated, two intelligence, Test of Memory and Learning and Primary Test of Nonverbal intelligence and two achievements, Canadian Achievement Test and Basi
Definitions of Intelligence Sir Francis Galton was the first person to publish how heredity can influence intelligence. Believed as well that the prevalent of intelligent people were outfitted with the unsurpassed sensory abilities. Galton also viewed intelligence as a quantity of diverse methods or aptitudes that could only be assessed by separate tests (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 279). Alfred Binet was responsible at the turn of the century for the testing movement for intelligence. Binet believed that you could not separate methods because sometimes they interacted with another and produce a solution. Since more then one method can be used at one time Binet suggested for a more multifaceted measurement of testing intelligence (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 280).
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By identifying participants based on their level of reward processing in accordance with the stimuli presented and testing their inclinations toward altruistic behaviors, we can determine whether there is a strong correlation between the neural responses of the individual, the nature of the stimuli which evoke these responses, and most importantly, the type of behaviors such responses are capable of eliciting. Scientific Background An influential figure in the movement of evolutionary psychology, Charles Darwin, created a model which suggests the biological basis for altruism.
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Evaluate the contribution made by psychoanalysis to the scientific understanding of human behaviour.
and turning themselves against him, ended up to the conclusion that there is a sexual attraction between his fellow and Irma, something that was difficult to understand and accept but Freud had to assume that was true in order to continue interpret his dream. After " Irma's injection" Freud believed that many dreams if not all can be interpreted in the same way and that there is a connection between dreams and hysterical symptoms. Further, dream images and individual hysterical symptoms seemed to represent different unconscious ideas, for example Freud's dream of Irma's injection had a large number complex of ideas, same as when different pathogenic ideas underlie a single hysterical symptom.
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Both biological and humanistic factors have influences on ones personality development. One major issue that arises in this discipline is nature vs. nurture.
He argued that these biological temperaments influence a person's personality. For example, someone classified as extroversion-introversion are either outgoing and impulsive or the latter, quiet and reserved; Those in the dimension of neuroticism often respond to situations very emotionally; and if classified in the psycoticism group are frequently described as egocentric or impulsive (Burger, 2008). Many believe that people are born with general behavior dispositions called temperaments. These temperaments develop into personality over time. If someone's personality is their "nature," can "nature" be influenced by the environment they are in? According to the humanistic approach to personality, one's personal responsibility in life is the determinant of his or her personality.
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Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to Personality There are several different aspects of analyzing a persons personality. No two people will be the exact same.
The pleasure principle (id) is what drives us until the reality principle (ego) can develop as we get older. From there, the superego develops to keep the two in check. This theory seems to cover a lifetime of development. The most unappealing theory is Freud's Psychosexual stages. Grasping the notion that one's well being and motivation is only based on a sexual drive and sensual satisfaction is very difficult. The Human race is far more in-depth and sophisticated than Freud's Psychosexual theory suggests (Blewitt & Broderick, 2006).
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they could not be observed explanations of human behaviour as they could not be observed directly/objectively, this earns this approach a lot of criticism as little research was done into cognitive psychology until the 1950's. Watson claimed he could raise an infant to be anything, regardless of the infant's ancestor's talents, tendencies, and abilities. Behaviourists now hold a strong confidence about our capability to change human behaviour by changing the environment we grow up. (E.Smith, et al 2003) The behaviouristic approach comes the nearest to meeting the criteria of the scientific approach.
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3 Cerebral asymmetry refers to anatomical, physiological or behavioural differences between the two cerebral hemispheres. The hemisphere that is larger, more active, or greater in performance is dominant. The scientific study of cerebral dominance is recent and dates back to Paul Broca's discovery in 1865, based on observing acquired language deficit (aphasia) following left hemisphere stroke, that the left cerebral hemisphere of right-handed people is dominant for language. Until the mid 1940's, the neurological agreement was that the left hemisphere of right-handers is dominant for all higher functions and the right hemisphere is dominant in left-handers.
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Thorndike also claimed the opposite happens, that if a negative trait was identified for an individual then they would generalise it to create other, unrelated negative traits, for example, unattractiveness can be generalised to unintelligence and unpopularity. Nisbett & Wilson (1977) pioneered research into this field by presenting individuals with one of two videotaped interviews. Half the participants were presented with an interviewer who was cold and distant whilst the other half was presented with the same interviewer but behaving warm and friendly.
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triangulation - This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between the degree of punishment and the mental state of criminals. Thus, the degree of punishment is dependent on the mental condition of the criminal.
EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL: This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between the degree of punishment and the mental state of criminals. Thus, the degree of punishment is dependent on the mental condition of the criminal. This experiment will enable the court of law to make a wise judgment and to give justice to the criminal as it is against the human rights to penalize a mentally challenged criminal with a harsh punishment (the weaker the criminal's mental state, the less harsh the punishment given).
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Previous research into this has shown that "the inferential process leads to participants forming implicit personality theories (stereotypes)" Bruner and Tagiuri. I have selected for the hypothesis to be directional, because, ultimately, I am predicting a specific direction, that "chavs" will be rated less trustworthy than someone dressed formally. In the media today is a lot of controversy and emphasis on 'chavs' and their culture. "Chav is a mainly derogatory slang term in the United Kingdom for a subcultural stereotype fixated on fashions derived from American Hip-Hop (African-American) and Guido (Italian-American) fashions and stereotypes such as gold jewellery and designer clothing combined with elements of working class British street fashion.
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Walster realized that there were many reasons why someone would want to be with an attractive person, one of them being prestige. Walster claimed that some couples are physically mismatched, and proponents of the hypothesis argue that these couples balance out in other areas. On the other hand, the less attractive the person would feel insecure and jealous of their other half, thus mismatching threatens the success of a long term relationship. As well as Walster, Murstien in 1972 also carried out a research study to do with the matching hypothesis Murstien compared photographs of engaged or 'steady' couples with random couples.
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was checked and exceeded which gives the researchers a high level of confidence in their results as this level of validity on the mann-whitney-U test is highly stringent and therefore it is less likely the results are due to chance, as the probability is less than or equal to 1%. However, just because the results are said to not be down to chance does not mean that they are 100% valid due to the possibility of confounding variables, such a weather, unfairly affecting the results.
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In 1969 Walster and Walster conducted a similar study, but this time where the participants met each other first. This gave them time to interact more, learn about each other and therefore assess their date's other characteristics, such as intelligence, sense of humour and general personality. This study had greater ecological validity than the original, and the results also supported the hypothesis - partners that were similar in terms of physical attractiveness expressed the most liking for each other. One reason for this was proposed by Huston. He suggested that people were more likely to favour those of the same level of attractiveness as themselves because of a fear of rejection and a need for companionship.
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= 1.20, p<0.05, and there was a significant difference for the collided and smashed groups, F (2,9) = 5.79, p>0.05. By looking at the mean results for each condition, it was clear to see that when the verb ?smashed? was used, the estimation of speed was highest. It was lowest when the verb ?bumped? was used. Conclusions The results of this report are consistent with the hypothesis that when eyewitnesses are asked misleading questions after an event, it can cause an alteration of the original memory of the event.
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Conclusion Criticism is received and interpreted differently by in-group members when stemming from both in-group and out-group critics. Perceptions of criticisms given by in-groups and out-groups Introduction In society it is common for humans to form groups in many contexts. These groups vary in size, type and structure; it's possible and common for an individual to be a member of numerous groups; from groups in the workplace, at home, in schools or as part of similar interest organisations. Social identity theory looks at many of these aspects of groups and group formations and questions how groups of people work and why.
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Triangulation as mentioned earlier is the process of combining three or more research methodologies when investigating a certain idea or issue.
An example of a confounding variable encountered in this experiment could be: presence of noise by other students leading to low concentration of the participants. To conduct this particular experiment, the experimenter can combine three different methodologies as a process of triangulation and can carry out the experiment using these three research methods. The three methodologies the experiment could use are: 1. Experimental Method (Carry out an experiment) Conducting experiments is one of the most important tools in developing and testing theories.
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To what extent do the 'ends' justify the 'means' in ethically objectionable experiments such as Milgram's study of obedience?
An authoritative figure commanded them to dispense agonizing electric shocks to another participant who had volunteered for the experiment, who was actually Milgram's associate. Milgram's associate, known as the learner was strapped to a chair with electrodes attached to him (Brehm & Kassin 2005). The learner and teacher communicated in separate rooms, in which the teacher asked the learner questions (Glassman & Hadad 2004). In response to every wrong answer the teacher administered an electric shock, which increased by 15V for every wrong answer that followed (Eysenck 1998).
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The attended message is the finally sent to the response process stage, where the final product is made. Research evidence for Broadbent's model has come from Cherry. In Cherry's 'dichotic listening task', after participants were played two messages simultaneously. Cherry found that participants were able to notice if the voice was male or female. If the volume had changed from loud to soft, and so on. Basically participants were able to recognise certain physical characteristics of the unattended message, even though they didn't really know what the message was. The findings support Broadbent as it fits with the idea that both messages do receive minimal processing, to distinguish between the two channels.
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The researcher is the primary data collector and analyser. Data can be collected via interviews, observations and researcher-designed instruments (Thomas et al. 2001). The goal of qualitative research is the development of concepts which helps us to understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings, giving due emphasis to the meanings, experiences, and views of all the participants (Pope and Mays 1995). The researcher is able to gain an insight into another person's views, opinions, feelings and beliefs all within natural settings (Hicks 1999).
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Kassin, Ellsworth & Smith (1989) suggested that there is a 5% chance that eyewitnesses tend to overestimate the duration of events and a 27% chance that the testimony is affected by how the questions are worded. Plenty of research was done by Loftus & Palmer but an experiment which played an important role was their study in 1974. Bird (1927) says that most people are inaccurate in reporting numerical details and the inaccuracy tends to be an overestimate. Loftus & Palmer decided to study the causes of these inaccuracies. Wording of a question plays an important role when eyewitness are questioned about a particular incident.
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Due to the outcome and intense nature of this study, it has obtained an internationally wide-spread audience. However, a great deal of criticism has been attributed to the ethical procedures that were in place during the study. Although a number of ethical guidelines were integrated within the experiment many guidelines were broken, bestowing a negative representation on the study. Many psychologists are in deliberation regarding the justification for the experiment. Researchers argue between the great amount of knowledge acquired from the findings of the study and the detrimental impact laid upon the subjects involved. The first ethical guideline implemented in the study involved a contractual statement where participants agreed to sign a temporary loss of civil rights together with the assurance of "humane conditions"; an adequate diet, clothing, housing and medical care (Adams 2004).
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The age group was 16-20. The experiment sample included 8 girls and 8 boys which were the first eight picked from a pile of filled in questionnaires by males and female participants. Apparatus The apparatus used in were the questionnaire containing the scale, and the photographs in which the participants rated the couples, three sheets in total by which 2 sheets had separate male and females labelled 1-10 randomly and the third with the couple. (Appendices A,B, and C).
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x (utility of that outcome) Tversky and Kahneman (1987) carried out the Asian Disease Study to investigate decision making. They gave participants a scenario, in which a rare disease was to kill 600 people. Participants were given two programmes to combat the disease. Programme A would save 200 lives, while programme B had a third probability that all 600 lives would be saved and a two third probability that no one would be saved. The expected utility of Programme A is 1 x 200 = 200 people saved and the expected utility of Programme B is 0.33 x 600 = 200.
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