• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Regional anatomy - case studies of the spinal region

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Jun Wang NAECM2011-118007 Regional Anatomy Lab ?Assignment 1 Case 1 Case Summary: Lymph node biopsy was performed on a patient to obtain a sample of her left deep cervical nodes. Following the surgery, the patient complained of weakness in her left shoulder, which is then closely examined to confirm her inability to raise the point of her shoulder. However, the patient?s new symptom was not associated with numbness in her shoulder, back or neck. Terms: Lymph node biopsy: Lymph nodes are part of the body's immune system, where produce and harbor infection-fighting white blood cells (lymphocytes) that attack and can be attacked by both infectious agents and cancer cells. For that reason, physicians do a needle biopsy to remove a portion of a lymph node and examine under the microscope to find evidence of these problems. Deep cervical nodes: are a group of lymph nodes situated around or near the internal jugular vein. Includes two groups, superior and inferior, based on the point where the omohyoid muscle crosses the vein. Case Discussion: In class, our group discussed about Case 1. Our first question was to identify which nerve has been cut during the biopsy that would cause the symptoms developed. After looking up the anatomical location of both deep cervical lymph nodes and all the major nerves neighboring, we were able to determine it was the Accessory nerve (CN XI) ...read more.


This procedure is also referred as a spinal tap. Lethargy: the quality or state of being drowsy, dull, listless and unenergetic. Case Discussion: In class, our group discussed about Case 2. Our first question was how to locate the puncture site. We learned that on average, the spinal cord ends at the L1 ? L2 level. To insure the safety and not puncturing the spinal nerves, it is suggested to insert the needle between L3 to L4 or L4 to L5. The land mark used to locate the site is the superior iliac crests. The line connecting the left and right iliac crest points usually passes through the spinous process of the L4 vertebra, thus, by feeling the indentation of the interlaminar spaces, we can locate the puncture site. The next question we discussed was why the syringe needle is inserted in the midline and with the median plane and what structures that the needle traverses before entering the lumbar cistern. We learned that at the level of the lumbar cistern the nerve roots are suspended in CSF and fixed by dural sleeves laterally. Thus, it is necessary to insert the needle through the interlaminar space in the midline to avoid damage to nerve roots. The layers that the needle must pass through before reaching to CSF containing subrachnoid spaces are: skin, superficial fascia, supraspinous ligament, interspinous ligament, ligament flava, epidural space, dura mater, subdural space and arachoid mater. ...read more.


The dens can then impact the spinal cord, injuring or severing it. In this case, although the patient's spinal cord was not severed, impact from the dens caused a spinal cord hematoma resulting in quadriplegia. Next we discussed the reasons for physicians to immobilize the patient?s spinal before transporting to hospital. It is because after trauma, especially for any vertebra fracture that has the potential to injure the spinal cord, fixing the spine can prevent uncontrolled movement of potentially fractured vertebrae. Vertebral fracture can cause spinal cord injury; spinal cord injury then can cause paralysis or death. Conclusion: Through learning the materials from the lectures about human back and its associated clinical cases, I learned that spinal cord acted as a nerve highway that transmits signals from the controlling center brain to every part of the body. Its especial structure maximized the protection against tension and forces, at the same time, allowed for the wide distribution of the nerves spread to all organs of the body. Upon damaging to the supporting structure, the spinal vertebrae will cause various distresses on the nerves it protects. Physicians based on the specific symptoms and its association with the functions of nerves, were able to identify the causes and provide treatments. In this course, I was most fascinated by the lumbar puncture and it?s widely usage in diagnoses and therapeutic treatments Reference CMU lab manual for student. Gray?s Anatomy book http://www.wikipedia.com http://medinfo.ufl.edu/year2/neuro/lock/neuroexam/accessry.html http://antranik.org/central-nervous-system-spinal-cord/ www.spinal-injury.net/ http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com www.webmd.com www.apparelyzed.com/spinalcord.html ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Applied Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Applied Biology essays

  1. SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting Lab report (extensive methods section)

    They are listed, with their corresponding molecular weights, log10 molecular weights and the distance they migrated down the SDS gel. Protein Standards Molecular Weight (MW)(Da) Log10 MW Distance Migrated (cm) 1 Macroglobulin from human plasma 180,000 5.255 1.5 2 Galactosidase from E.

  2. Lab report: food dehydration. This experiment focuses on the follow four questions: ...

    Full and intact structure is the basic requirement to ensure fully regain of lost water. Within plants cell, pectin gum and crystallization of polysaccharide gels can affect regaining of water. However, since the structure and integrity of carrot and potato tissues were damaged in blanching or excessive dehydration, it is impossible to regain the property as the fresh food.

  1. Effect of exercise on heart rate and arterial blood pressure in young healthy volunteers.

    The normal range for systolic blood pressure was 120-139 mmHg and the normal range for diastolic blood pressure was 80-89 mmHg. So the sample group had, on average, and normal systolic blood pressure and a diastolic blood pressure within the optimum level [4].

  2. Bi technology and food security: The clue for a new green revolution?

    In short GM development appears to be the most promising via staples yield enhancement for poverty reduction, the problem is that it is locked into a system where it is not used for such purposes and where a few large firms are competitively bound to protect their investment.

  1. Food Science -Experiments to Determine the Properties and Uses of Enzymes in Food Preperation.

    Collagen is a structural protein found in all animals, meaning that it helps give animals their structure, or shape (Science Buddies, 2012). Gelatin is extracted from dead animal skins and bones as collagenous material, which is then treated to produce the final gelatin.

  2. Kidneys and nephrons functions

    Aquaporin channels are controlled by antidiuretic hormone ADH, which is formed in the hypothalamus when water level in blood become lower then it supposes to be (plasma osmolarity increases) (Bradley & Calvert 2011). In consequences more aquaporin channels are produced, that helps more water to be reabsorbed (Bradley & Calvert 2011).

  1. Comparing and and contrasting the endocrine system with the nervous system in their control ...

    The nervous system is defined as a brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves (Bradley & Calvert 2011). The most important function of the endocrine system is to maintain homeostasis (Bradley & Calvert 2011). Humans belong to a group of endothermic animals that must maintain constant body temperature Native Remedies (2012)

  2. Tumour markers and their role in Cancer diagnostics

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is also a molecular technique for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities, with the utilization of fluorescently labeled DNA probes for detection. Urothelial carcinoma, seen in the bladder, is one of the tumours that may be diagnosed through FISH, which basically detects the presence of the exfoliated carcinoma cells in the urine (Halling, 2006).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work