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University Degree: Sports Science
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Feedback is the return of information which has been brought about by the result of a process or activity4 star(s)
Proprioceptive is the feedback which is provided by the receptors found in muscles and tendons called proprioceptors and the balance sensors which provide information on how a movement 'feels.' When an athlete becomes familiar with a skill they develop a sense of how the movement should feel and from this are able to identify whether they are performing it correctly or not. This feedback is often used by athletes to make fine adjustments to a movement e.g. a basketball player may realise that they are more likely to score if they put a spin on the ball as they shoot and can make these changes accordingly due to this feedback.
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PETCO2 and PETO2 can also show changes when measured in the obese, in severe heart failure and in patients with pulmonary vascular disease (Fig.1.0). In obese individuals PETCO2 is greater than that of normal individuals and PETO2 is severely decreased. This is due to a mechanical restriction caused by the heavy chest wall and abdomen preventing ventilation from keeping the precise pace with the increase of CO2 production. Patients that have severe heart failure evidence a decrease in PETCO2. This is due to blood flow being slow in relation to ventilation in regional lung units.
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Sports participation is directly affected by social exclusion. Drawing on the literature from the sociology of sport discuss the statement in relation to TWO of the following; gender, disability, sexuality, race and class.
This jump down was found to be caused by the degree of sporting opportunities decreasing for individuals having left school. Research such as this help with the intervention of inclusion policies that sport strategies such as 'game plan' devise. Like Collins (2004) many sports sociologists have conducted research on agendas that lead to social exclusion in sport. This research has been crucial into our understanding of sports participation and how it is directly affected by social exclusion (Wagg, 2004). In addition to this sociologists often use past research to aid them in their own study.
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is sportsmanship possible in professional sports? In this essay I will be looking at the influence in which professional sport has had on sport itself and how people perceive sport.
An example of this could be challenging the umpire's decision in both Tennis and Cricket. Discourse ethics identify ethical truths through the presupposition of discussion (Sprod, 2001). An example of this would be at a disciplinary hearing where the actions of the individual in question would be analysed and discussed as to what was ethically right for the action to be. 'Sports are all about breaking down barriers; not just the barriers of speed and scores, championships and personal bests. It's also about breaking down the stereotypes and the barriers that limit opportunities and a fair playing field for all' (Boxill, 2003, p.6).
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Within this essay I will be looking at the national governing body known as the Football association otherwise referred to as the FA. I will be looking to discuss the success it has currently and analyse the objectives they have set for future growth.
It has built on its reputation as the world's senior football administration, adding greatly to its activities over the years The FA is one of 208 members of FIFA, the world governing body for football, and one of 53 members of UEFA. The activities are varied and include the following: Promoting the development of the game amongst all ages, backgrounds and abilities in terms of participation and quality. This also involves promoting the availability of the sport to the greatest possible number of people.
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Violence in Sport. There are various theories that explain the relationship between sports and violence, but a few of them are discussed here, which are considered to be the most fundamental concepts in this area of study.
The concept of 'violence in sports' is elusive. Like other aspects of the social process, such as culture, the family, or crime, everyone thinks they know what it is until challenged to define it, or faced with having to do something about it (Dunning 2000, pp. 141-162). Most people typically conceive of violence in sports as falling into two areas crowd violence, which often involves both crimes against persons and property and player violence. In fact, if the conventional parameters of sports violence are broadened to include violent, abusive or otherwise injurious acts related to sport.
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To do this we either need to accept or reject the hypothesis, this will be done through the results. Hypotheses: there is a significant difference between ego and task involving instruction Null hypothesis: there is no significant difference between ego and task involving instruction. And the p- value was set at p<.05 Methods Participants The subjects use were 173 university students on a sport science degree, males (N= 122), females (N= 53). Between the ages of 18- 38 years (M= 19.50 years, SD= 2.65 years) consisting of some athletes (non professional) ranging from novice level of performance to expert.
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The study that is going to be conducted will investigate the difference physical activity participation levels ( PAPL) in children at secondary level, who attend private school and public school to see if the reasons lie in the financial capabilities of t
Past studies have shown that not only can participation in physical activity be beneficial to one's health but also academically (Taras, 2005) as physical activity levels can help boost blood circulation to the brain which in turn increases the levels of norepinephrine and endorphins. This helps eliminate the effects of stress and anxiety helping an individual to me more focused and calm thus helping them to focus on their academic work (Taras, 2005). Now is the best time to investigate all the possibilities of what causing a decline in PAPL , one which is the different schooling backgrounds to see
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A Critical evaluation of how my learning experiences from the module; Participation and Challenge in Games across the Inclusion Spectrum might impact on my future professional practice.
In future practice, when teaching games, I will incorporate modifications to games and often use adapted games in order to cater for a broad spectrum of abilities. The Disability survey (2000) found that the proportion of children and young people with a disability or severe illness taking part in sport after school (organised or just for fun) was 40% compared to 79% for the general population of young people. Weekend and half term participation in sport was 47% of disabled young people and 74% of the general population of young people.
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The aim of this investigation is to determine how reaction time alters when a person is presented with different stimuli and reaction options.
information is sent to muscles, glands and organs for them to respond correctly. The CNS and PNS are the two divisions of the nervous system that allow these sensory, integrative and motor functions. Hypothesis I expect reaction time to be fastest when there is only one stimulus as there is less information for the brain to process and analyze. Method Donders (1868 ). Type A Task - In a type A task there is a single stimulus and a single response. There will be a warning that the trial is about to begin.
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classified velocity as "the change in position, or displacement which occurs during a given period of time." Two theories currently exists to try and explain the exact cause and formation of taliotibial osteophytes, and one such theory is that, "recurrent traction on the joint capsule during maximal plantar flexion movements of the foot, as is assumed to occur during kicking actions in soccer, is the essential cause, resulting in traction spurs." This theory was proposed and cited by Biedert (1991), Cutsuries et al (1994), Massada (1991), and McMurray (1950). More recent studies have concluded another theory for osteophyte formation is "direct damage to the rim of the anterior ankle cartilage in combination with recurrent micro trauma" this could be caused by the direct impact of the soccer ball on the anterior of the ankle.
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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, 2002) demonstrated that estimated energy requirements (EER) for sedentary adults ranged between 1800 to 2.600 kcal/day compared to an EER of 2.500 to 3.720 kcal/day that is suggested for active individuals (Reilly & Thomas, 1979). However subject specific, based on the assumption that energy expenditures off the football field are only moderate, the daily energy requirement of male soccer players was estimated at 14.7MJ . day -1 (3500kcal/day) (Williams, 1994). With the clients recommended energy levels coinciding with the literature (+3500kcal), the client's percentage of energy should be derived from 60% carbohydrates, 25% from fats and 15% from protein (Mullinix et al, 2002).
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Doping in the DDR. Only years later after the fall of the wall separating Berlin and the occurrence of dopings long-term effects on the athletes, details were discovered of East-Germanys doping. They had given many of their athletes anabolic steroid
The sporters came from all different social classes. Already in kindergarten age, the children get tested for any special talents. And if one was lucky enough to have a special talent, the state made sure one would get the best education that they had, which could be high schools, universities or even sport schools. In this way, many famous athletes were trained to bring phenomenal performances, in which the physical limitations were to great degree exceeded. Doping made this possible and was used in nearly all sports.
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Sports Injury Case -spondylolytic fracture. Davis had been bowling throughout a long season, this may have been a contributing factor to the injury. Fatigue could have affected his bowling technique, coupled with the hard surface causing pounding on the j
The pain is aggravated by movements involving lumber extension. On examination, pain is produced on extension with rotation and on extension while standing on the affected leg." (1993, p.277). Other ways to diagnose this injury is with x-rays, CT scan or MRI scan. Davis had been bowling throughout a long season, this may have been a contributing factor to the injury.
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With respect to the body systems describe a childs limitations to physical activity and explain how a coach would take these into consideration when planning or coaching.
Children will feel short term and long term effects to the cardio respiratory system during and after exercise. Some of the short term effects include an ncreased heart rate meaing the quantity of blood pumped by the heart increases to match the increased demand of the respiratory system (Obolynx website, 2010). Also, there is an increase in stroke volume as well. According to the Obolynx wesbite (2010), this means that the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in the heart in one pump, increases. The body needs more oxygen during exercise and the only way to get more oxygen is to increase the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per heart beat(Mathers, 2008).
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To stop this athletes will streamline themselves, so that the air travels around them. "An area of high pressure develops in front where the athlete or object pushes against the air head-on. Immediately to the rear you find an area of turbulence." Carr, G (2004:126). Surface Drag In contrast to form drag, surface drag can cause the fluid to slow down; this is supported by Hall, S, "The layer of fluid particles immediately adjacent to the moving body is slowed because of the shear stress the body exerts on the fluid. Surface drag occurs when a fluid such as air or water comes into contact with the body, this has been supported by Cooke,
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You may be asked to use this feedback to reflect upon your learning and personal development (PDP). Marker Signature :.................................................................. Date:.............................. White Copy for Module Tutor / Pink Copy for Student Name: Adam Merrifield Course: Fitness Testing Word Count: 1,278 Contents Page Introduction 5 Client Profile 5 Client Questionnaire 6 V02 Max Tests 7 Conclusion 10 Bibliography 11 Introduction This assignment will look at the understanding of different fitness tests and the procedure's that are used in these fitness tests.
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Sport Psychology Case Study - The goals that the client had set out were to play at a good standard of football and win trophies with the clubs he/she was at. The main goal was too become a professional, but injury prevented this. The goal now set is to g
1.2 "Sport and exercise psychology is the scientific study of people and their behaviors in sport and exercise contexts and the practical application of that knowledge" (Gill, 2000). Sport psychology is the factors within to control yourself in different situations for example confidence in taking a penalty. Can you can control your emotions and focus on scoring it. "The ability to focus one's attention on the task at hand and thereby not be disturbed or affected by irrelevant external and internal stimuli" (Schmid and Peper, 1998, p.
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Much research has looked at frequencies of feedback for knowledge of results and performance in specific tasks. The purpose of this essay is to review current literature and subsequently design an experiment. Review Of Current Literature In 1971 Adams craeted a open-loop theory which states that 'if the stimuli are adequate, and the motivational and habit or perceptual states of the organism are sufficient, the response will occur, otherwise not.' (Adams, 1971). Alongside this open-loop theory Adams also created a closed loop theory which states that for a theory to be a closed loop theory it 'must be error-centred, with a reference mechanism against which feedback from the response is compared for the detection and correction of error (1971).
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Also carbohydrates are necessary for physical activity e.g. allowing a marathon runner to compete at his/her best. Carbohydrates also act as a fuel reserve, a store of energy for when readily available energy is not obtainable. Some carbohydrates can be changed into proteins or fats, which can be used as energy reserves to be used for growth and repair. Another big carbohydrate is cereal which many people use before a sport such as playing a football match. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. If you look at carbohydrate it is obvious e.g. carbo relates to carbon and hydrate means to gain water that consists of hydrogen and oxygen.
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Sport Psychology. The athlete to be discussed in this paper found that imagery, feedback, goal setting and confidence played major roles in her overall performance in Sport Aerobics. Sport Aerobics incorporates facets of strength, flexibilty, power, agil
Augmented feedback is provided beyond intrinsic feedback and supplements the information that is naturally available. As the athlete had little experience in Sport Aerobics, it was difficult for her to differentiate between what was the correct technique and what the incorrect techniques were. Therefore, she relied upon feedback supplied by external sources (i.e. her peers, teachers and family members). This augmented feedback aided the athlete's progress throughout the term by giving her the knowledge of skills that she was performing incorrectly and thus what she was required to improve upon. The amount, content, frequency, precision, and type of augmented feedback provided are critical elements in skill acquisition, and manipultaion of these variables can result in different learning outcomes (Li, W., Solmon, M.A., Lee, A.M., Purvis, G., & Chu, H., 2007).
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in a variety of ways, four methods are recognized as the most popular, densitometry (Hydrostatic Weighing), bioelectric impedance, near Infrared Inheritance and skin fold fat thickness. Densitometry or hydrostatic weighing is considered the gold standard in terms of body composition accuracy. Hydrostatic weighing is used to measure body density, from which body composition and percentage body fat may be estimated, based on Archimedes' principle (the weight loss under water is directly proportional to the volume of water displaced by Body Volume). This method provides good results in terms of accuracy however is expensive to complete due to the equipment involved.
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The ligaments are equally important in the knee joint because they hold the joint together'. (Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn 2007) The knee joint also has a structure made of cartilage, which is called the meniscus or meniscal cartilage. The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of tissue which fits into the joint between the tibia and the femur. It helps to protect the joint and allows the bones to slide freely on each other. There is also a bursa around the knee joint. A bursa is a little fluid sac that helps the muscles and tendons slide freely as the knee moves. There are two cruciate ligaments located in the center of the knee joint.
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Coach observation. The activity that will be analysed is Futsal. It is a format of small sided football that is recognised and supported by FIFA and UEFA with World and European Championships for club and National teams.
The league is a club level standard with varying talents. Using the Scale of Sports Participation (Alderson, 1996. Cited in Beashel, P. and Taylor J.) the level is representative competition. The team consists of 16 players, most of which are not English, which may show that Futsal is more recognised in other countries than in England. Their standard is very good, the goalkeeper for example used to play professionally in Italy and Brazil. The training sessions that are going to be observed happen twice a week and will take place at various locations. On the Thursday night between 8 - 9.30, it will take place at Ponds Forge sports hall, and on the Monday session between 8 - 9 it will take place at Parkway Academy.
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Technical requirements of positions 13 (Wiemeyer, 2003) Table 2. Individual tasks when in possession 13 of the ball (Van Lingen, 1997) Table 3. Individual tasks when not in possession 14 of the ball(Van Lingen, 1997) Table 4. Outfield player's operational definitions 19 used for study Table 5. Goalkeeper's operational definitions used 19 for study Table 6. Continuum of technique ratings 20 Table 7. Intra-observer action observation reliability 23 between T1 and T2 Table 8. Intra-observer action observation reliability 24 between T2 and T3 Table 9.
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