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University Degree: Sports Science

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  1. Sports Injury Case -spondylolytic fracture. Davis had been bowling throughout a long season, this may have been a contributing factor to the injury. Fatigue could have affected his bowling technique, coupled with the hard surface causing pounding on the j

    The pain is aggravated by movements involving lumber extension. On examination, pain is produced on extension with rotation and on extension while standing on the affected leg." (1993, p.277). Other ways to diagnose this injury is with x-rays, CT scan or MRI scan. Davis had been bowling throughout a long season, this may have been a contributing factor to the injury.

    • Word count: 543
  2. The Role of Frequency of Feedback in Motor Learning and Performance?

    Much research has looked at frequencies of feedback for knowledge of results and performance in specific tasks. The purpose of this essay is to review current literature and subsequently design an experiment. Review Of Current Literature In 1971 Adams craeted a open-loop theory which states that 'if the stimuli are adequate, and the motivational and habit or perceptual states of the organism are sufficient, the response will occur, otherwise not.' (Adams, 1971). Alongside this open-loop theory Adams also created a closed loop theory which states that for a theory to be a closed loop theory it 'must be error-centred, with a reference mechanism against which feedback from the response is compared for the detection and correction of error (1971).

    • Word count: 934
  3. Resting ECG and Heart Rate

    The electrical impulses are made while the heart is beating with the hearts rhythm. It provides a method of examining the heart rate during a range of physical activities and stress testing. Electrocardiograms assess if patients have had heart attacks of suspected coronary artery disease. The standard ECG uses ten cables to obtain twelve electrical views of the heart. There are three limb leads, three uni-polar leads and six chest leads. For an improved reading the electrodes are placed onto the torso to replace those that are usually placed onto the ankles and wrists. This should minimise any limb interference during the exercise.

    • Word count: 681
  4. High intensity exercise

    The reasons for testing anaerobic power and capacity are to determine the body's ability to activate the immediate and short-term energy systems during maximal exercise efforts. METHOD Three individuals volunteered to take part in the study (one male, two females). The subjects height, weight, age and training profiles were recorded before testing and they were informed about the experimental procedures The seat was first adjusted to suit each individual's limb length (they should allow a slight bend at the knee), and the resistive force was calculated.

    • Word count: 945
  5. Which one should you pick? Each contender for the 7th Generation Console War is in the ring, but which one will emerge victorious in the end.

    (It is doing well for the moment though) Pricing Xbox 360 - $400 and �270 which is fairly well priced, as you do get a year of Xbox live included, and a whole load of accessories. There is cheaper version though, which leaves out most unnecessary bits. Nintendo Wii - $250 and �180, an amazing price. This is so cheap; you get the essentials needed to play and Wii Sports. Wii Sports does come with 5 mini games that anyone can start playing regardless of age or experience.

    • Word count: 906
  6. Continued study in the field of Sports and Exercise Science will be a challenge that I look forward to as I am determined to further develop

    Additionally, I have gained valuable analysis and evaluation skills through this practical work, due to the need to analyse and evaluate the data retrieved from experiments, and interpreting this data into a meaningful conclusion. Human Biology has allowed me to expand my knowledge of the human body in many different ways, including how the human body operates, the factors which can influence it, and the way it responds to exercise. Of particular interest to me are the different aspects of sport science, for example, how performance is influenced by external factors such

    • Word count: 578
  7. Should team sports be a compulsory part of the school curriculum?

    However, by incorporating team sports into school hours, time will not be a problem and thus, we will all be fitter and Britain will be liberated from its title as 'the fattest nation in Europe'. Many of us may reason that the same benefits can be achieved by sports that require only one person per team, such as tennis singles or squash, so what makes team sports so special? The answer to this is that there are an incalculable number of skills that we can benefit from taking part in team sports but that cannot be gained from sports for individuals, including teamwork, communication and leadership skills, as well as the promotion of self-belief and self-discipline.

    • Word count: 758
  8. Sport in Society

    Football is the one of the most popular sports worldwide; there are nearly 50,000 clubs with 3 million participants. It's not only those who are closely connected to sport that get money out of it, sports retail sectors make a lot of money making the kits for the players. There are 430 rugby league clubs with 42,000 players altogether and the numbers are increasing. There are many different types of jobs in rugby, from managing to secretarial work. Participation There are many different ways we can participate in a form of exercise or sports. There are those involved in sports clubs, health and fitness activities, outdoor activities, casual sport with friends or even a social swim.

    • Word count: 991
  9. Drugs can improve your speed, reaction time, endurance etc, so performers take them to ensure they can perform at their peak. However with strict drug testing procedures these days performers find it very

    Some performers will take drugs to win competitions and the rewards that go with them. Others will take them out of the desire to win at all costs. Drugs can improve your speed, reaction time, endurance etc, so performers take them to ensure they can perform at their peak. However with strict drug testing procedures these days performers find it very difficult to get away with it, and many get caught and face long term bans. Short-term effects depend on the type of drug being used. Generally short-term effects include pain blockage from an injury, lower heart rate, reduced anxiety and slower breathing rate.

    • Word count: 699
  10. Sliding Filament theory Myosin and actin overlapping nature On the filament are special sites to which myosin attach

    almost straight away they realise and attach site i.e. the muscle shortens, hence contraction 1000's of filaments do this, what problems might arise if it doesn't occur properly? Slippage will occur Transmission of neural impulse * Involves electrical signal * At rest the neurone is positive outside and negative inside.

    • Word count: 324
  11. Brain Activity in Various Situations 1. Anne, the landscape artist, is standing at her easel painting

    * Anne's hippocampus could be used heavily if she is painting a scene from memory as it is responsible for recalling memories and sending them to be visualized. * The corpus collosum is vital in this situation as she transfers information from her creative side of her brain while painting to the other side when she must actually paint the image with her brush and paints in a certain process.

    • Word count: 436
  12. Explain Baron de Coubertin's motives and Philosophy for the rebirth of the Olympic Movement in 1896.

    hoping they would continue the spirit of the games he had created. To Coubertin, the Games were more than an athletic event; he wanted to enhance human development and make the world a better place to live in. Coubertin enforced this by tying the staging of the Games and his work with the IOC to a set of ideals, now known as "Olympism". "Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the quality of body, will and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy found in effort, the educational value of good example and respect for universal, fundamental ethical principles."

    • Word count: 611
  13. Identification of Lactate Threshold

    The lactate that is built up then has nowhere to go so is in and around the muscles and blood stream causing blockages. This is what causes the legs to feel heavy after periods of sustained exercise. Once oxygen is available the oxygen is used in a chemical reaction to convert the lactate back into pyruvate and co2 which can then be dispersed thus freeing up the muscles. During this test the heart rate of the athlete is also monitored and recorded, therefore when the lactate threshold is reached the heart rate at which it was reached is determined.

    • Word count: 623
  14. The other sports are just sports. Baseball is a love.

    As I dig into the ground with my long metal cleats I take a look at the pitcher with my eyes of courage and eagerness. Baseball is the moment I get the pitch from the opposing pitcher as I watch the baseball all the way into the bat. As my adrenaline pumps out of control, I take off towards first base and as I round first base I take a look at the baseball dropping in between the left fielder and the center fielder and roll past them.

    • Word count: 956
  15. Many people feel that race, color, ethnicity, etc should not be a reason to be chosen for things such as a job, or college acceptance.

    In each one of these cases we distinguish differences. This is not bad, it is just the way we distinguish one thing from another. If there is a murder suspect on the loose who is capable and probably will kill again, I want to know everything I can about him, whether he's black, brown, white, or pink for that matter. Additionally I will eat at whatever restaurant I see fit because I like the food there. I'm not asking other people to share my beliefs and opinions, but I think that they should be respected.

    • Word count: 962
  16. Cardiorespiratory Exercise Program.

    To test Cardiorespiratory endurance we did the 12 minute run/walk in the gym. I ran 29 laps, which is about 1 3/4 miles. This is a respectable amount in the time given. To test Muscular endurance we did as many sit-ups that we could do in a minute. I did 45, which is good for my age (18). For the Muscular strength test we did as many push-ups that we could do in a row.

    • Word count: 500
  17. From Ancient to Modern Olympic Games in Athens.

    Over time, the games flourished and Olympia became a central site of worship of Zeus. The athletes competed for pride patriotism and religious honour. However, some popular athletes were sometimes paid large sums of money, up to ten times the annual salary of a soldier, to participate in smaller athletic contests near their hometowns. Olympic winners received a wreath made of sacred olive tree branch. 2-The site of Olympia Olympia was about 15 km from the Ionian Sea. Olympia was built on grassy plain, north of the Alpheios River and south of forested hills of kronos.

    • Word count: 945
  18. Critically discuss and evaluate the theories of anxiety in relation to their effectiveness in examining the relationship between anxiety and sports performance.

    Also the further the arousal level is from the optimal point the worse the performance is said to be. Again this theory was produced as a result of mainstream psychological research and so its validity with relation to sports performance has been questioned (Hardy & Fazey 1987; Neiss 1988). Not only has the validity been questioned but also the face validity of the shape of the curve has been questioned. It has been suggested that it would be unrealistic to assume that once performers become over aroused and performance declines then a reduction in arousal to a previous level will regain optimal performance (Hardy & Fazey 1987)

    • Word count: 759
  19. Faced with the new fall offerings for kids and an already dizzying array of channels, parents must ponder whether to turn it on and tune in to it or - dare we say it? - turn it off.

    DK is one of them, who emphasized responsibilities teens learn from news, participate and competitive attitude absorb from sports. Meanwhile, its negative influence is much concerned by some people. I hold the view of the second one and my argument will be involved by directed against these two points in DK paper. Television News is the most formal and governmental content children can receive from TV. They also bring some order and understanding to the constant barrage of information to which the youths are exposed. DK stated in his paper that "TV news remind children of their responsibilities, other people's hardship, problems that have on ready solutions, diseases with no cures...TV news expose most information and problem about children's future, consequently the concern of 'when I grow up' will be lead by these news and public affairs programs."

    • Word count: 900
  20. Steroids: A Threat to Legitimate Sport?

    Forms of steroids can be made in the body by the adrenal glands or by the reproductive glands. Doctors have deemed it useful in treating some sicknesses and illnesses, such as different types of cancer. Steroids have been prescribed to decrease swilling around cancerous areas and to prevent sickness from chemotherapy treatments. When given with chemotherapy, steroids are only taken for a few days at a time, but they are prescribed each chemotherapy treatment. All steroids have side effects, ranging from minimal to severe; depending on the size of the dosage and the length the dosage is taken.

    • Word count: 690
  21. Low Back Pain following MVA.

    The low back pain was of an aching quality at the L2-L4 region. She finds relief from laying down and resting after activity. Prior to the accident she experienced a similar low back complaint after long runs however not as bad. X-rays where ordered and revealed right sagittal facets at L5/S1 on the right and diffuse scoliosis to the right in the thoracic and lumbar spine. No other significant bony or soft tissues abnormalities was demonstrated. Initial Examination Findings: Postural examination revealed an increase lumbar lordosis.

    • Word count: 608
  22. An explanation of the dominant factors that shaped recreation before 1800

    Hunting, race meetings and estate cricket matches in the countryside had commenced as they had before 1800. Sport played a special role of a long established tradition of estate/rural life. The lord of manor was master of his own individual domain, and also the local activities based around it. The local of squire was not to be dictated to by any inhumane curate, no mater of their positional status-whether they be working -class or aristocrat who practised abstinence. The influence of the church was another dominant factor that shaped recreation before 1800. Prior to the 1800's, the lord of manor was exceptionally powerful and on frequent occasions would determine whether an activity or recreational event would commence or not.

    • Word count: 606
  23. Medically supervised drugs for athletes should be permitted

    Johan Hoberman is analyzing the doping crisis in his article "Sports physicians and the doping crisis in elite sport". Sidney Gendin, the author of the last article, "Let's ban those who don't use drugs", has exactly the reverse opinion than the first two authors. The drug abuse issue is linked in some ways to the debates on commercialism and professionalism of the Olympics and other international sports events. Because appearance fees and prize money typically are performance-related, the argument goes, some athletes worry that abstinence will soon render them uncompetitive at the elite level of their sport, and thus they will miss out on commercial endorsements and other moneymaking opportunities.

    • Word count: 873
  24. Shaping up For Footy.

    He found relief by lying flat on his back or stretching the low back with forward bends (touching toes). He said that he had suffered numerous episodes of low back pain over the past 7 years. The pain has gradually worsened over this period but has been largely ignored. He had a previous history of trauma - a fall from a motorbike where he slid on his back and into a tree also 7 years ago. X-rays were taken immediately after the accident and revealed no abnormality.

    • Word count: 706
  25. Boxing has been around for almost 6,000 years. When boxing was first invented it was a type of sport where the athletes sat on a rock and hit each other until one of them was knocked out.

    Then they went even farther, developing a cruel, spur-like instrument of bronze, called the myrmex ("limb piercer"). Boxing in the Roman Empire was not so much a sport as a bloody amusement for spectators, like the gladiatorial contests, with slaves pitted against one another in a fight to the death" (hickok sports.com). Boxing today may be considered a blood sport, but unlike the Greek/Roman times, it is full of strategy and fast hand eye coordination. In addition, there is a trained referee (watching the fight)

    • Word count: 512

"It's about you. If you win, it's you; if you lose, it's you. Black and white. Nowhere to hide."

-Greg Rusedski

If you're a curious, hardworking person who has always been passionate about sport, then you might want to consider studying sport science at university level. You can study it on its own, or in conjunction with another subject like physiology or business studies. Depending upon the degree, you might learn about the psychology of sport, get a chance to work with top-performing athletes, or complete a placement year in industry.

Writing will play a significant role in most sports science degrees, so if writing an essay feels like a slog at the moment then it's time to undergo sometraining. Marked by Teachers can help with its collection of teacher-marked biological sciences essays. Between the inspiration from the papers, and the insights from the teacher annotations, your writing performance will soon meet its full potential.

Due to the specialised focus of the degree, sports science students often stay in the field, taking roles in coaching, consulting, personal training, andnutrition. Those that go further afield may find themselves in business and administrative roles.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss Factors That Control Respiration.

    "In conclusion, respiration is controlled by nerve cells in the medulla. These cells send impulses down the spinal cord and then via the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm and via the intercostals muscles. The reticular formation has an inbuilt rhythmical pattern of activity which maintains the rhythmical activity of these muscles. The rhythm is supplemented by the Hering-Breur reflex. Stretch receptors in the lung tissue send impulses via the vagus nerve to the brain stem. The impulses inhibit inspiration when the lungs are distended, and stimulate inspiration when dilated In addition, pain and nerve pulses from exercising limbs, cause an increase in the rate and depth of breathing, by their action on the reticular formation."

  • Assess and compare the physiological demands of two different team sports. The physiological demands will be measured in terms of Heart rate. The two team sports will be 5 a-side Soccer, and 5 a-side Basketball.

    "Overall both games were found to be relatively physically demanding and therefore recognise findings in all of the case studies and literature reviewed in the introduction. I failed to find any evidence published stating that either sport was physically demanding, and from my heart rate values for either game cannot draw any solid conclusion as to which is the more physically demanding."

  • To what extent is sport like work?

    "Both of the arguments are very strong and put forward proven ideas. However I feel that there is a stronger argument for 'sport is like work'. I feel that the dominant values are taught to us at an early age. Were taught to conform to them and to eventually take them into the workplace. And so the capitalsit society is reproduced."

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