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University Degree: Sports Science
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Lack of confidence 2. Lack of time 3. Lack of comprehensive sport knowledge 4. Lack of follow-up These factors will need to be taken into consideration when introducing this program to the local golfer, as well as his coach. Though PST programs can be built in many forms depending on participants needs, they generally do have a fix structure that comprises of three distinct phases. Accordingly, the local need to be put into these phrases, which include education, acquisition, and practice. Firstly, in the educational phase the local golfer will quickly recognize how important it is to obtain PST and how the skills affect his performance.
- Word count: 1915
There are many factors that are responsible for people participating in leisure activities, and dependent on their individual needs, the activities and the level at which they participate can vary on a wide scale.
Maslow's main concern was with the motives that drive people. Maslow suggested that two kinds of motivation existed. The first was deficiency motivation. This was the motivation towards relieving physiological needs such as hunger and thirst. The other form is growth motivation, which is concerned with the satisfying needs such as the needs to be loved and to increase esteem. When needs are surpassed, then there is a need to progress to a higher level. As Maslow continually studied these motives in a wide variety of situations he realised that they fell into pattern, which could then be arranged into a hierarchy of needs (Carlson et al, 2000)
- Word count: 1954
This idea can be applied to many other situations, and is a theme that is still pertinent to our 2003 American society. First, many business leaders adopt Machiavellian principles in running their companies, maintaining them, and making big profits. In the book, Management and Machiavelli, the author writes, "Corporations compete just as keenly as states, and are impelled by exactly the same human emotions of greed and fear and pride..." (Jay 14). This quote recognizes the similarities between the mindsets of political and corporate leaders.
- Word count: 1547
I was born on December 9th, 1990 at Whippscross Hospital. I am an average boy and I lead a normal life, or do I? 'Nah', I am an average, normal boy. My physical appearance is not dire; I am just a bit big around the stomach
You could say that I have my own 'chill out' corner of my room. I am not what you call the best person at interacting with people, but I try my best. I enjoy my own space and if you don't like your own company then I think you have problems! I am not good with guests who come around my house and those who I do not know very well. If it is someone like my cousin, I can talk instantly like a flash.
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The source has a variety of information and brings these across in a very informative way. It is headed by the IOC so information is precise and factual. It provides a general overview of the many subject areas listed above but it also has direct links to the medical commission and includes an interview with the IOC Medical Commission Director Dr Patrick Schamasch, so it has a number of academic sources with a high level of expertise. It presents information through different perspectives such as personal, through interviewing the doctor and stories on actual athletes, as well as being official information also.
- Word count: 1559
Athletics has moved away from the old days of it being a pride and doing your best, like 'Jesse Owen' in the 1936 Olympics, it has now `become a case of winners take all, whether legitimate or not. There are so many drugs used nowadays, but I will only talk about a few and the importance they have had on the sport. EPO One of the commonly abused drugs by athletes is Erythropoietin, commonly known as EPO. EPO is an artificial hormone that allows the blood to carry more oxygen, thus boosting the athlete's endurance.
- Word count: 1986
invest their own money into the facilities. As a result these facilities are usually named after someone e.g. David Lloyd, or brand names such as Virgin. The newest and most upcoming form of private sector companies within sport are football clubs. Football clubs are now big money investments that have the potential to be very successful businesses. The influence of Roman Abramovich is just one example. The private sector provides sports facilities for two main reasons: 1. to make a return on their investment for themselves and their shareholders 2. to make a profit out of sport Private sectors are all about MONEY and profit, despite the fact that some people have claimed that private sectors are there to improve standards of sport or improving the community the facilities are in.
- Word count: 1878
This is attributed to the pressure of the water on the body producing central pooling of the blood. This extra pressure acts to increase the rate of blood returning to the heart, which will result in an increased stroke volume. This in turn producing a lower hear rate. We can dive up to about 10 metres before the body will start to feel any discomfort. But with training people have been able to free dive 100m and more! If the face is submersed in cold water it triggers a vasoconstriction process were the blood flow from the periphery goes to the central nervous system and vital organs.
- Word count: 1962
For example every time David Beckham went out and changed his hair style, you would see hundreds of children with the same hair cut the next day. As David Beckham has advertised many things such as sports wear and drinks, many of these brands have had an enormous increase in sales as many young boys and girls want to wear the same trainers as him. Media pick up on anything and will make a story on especially if they think it might attract attention from the public.
- Word count: 1828
The Evolution of the Tomboy - Restrictions Placed on Female Participation in Physical Activity throughout History
In the 1900 Paris games, women were allowed to compete in sports such as golf, tennis, and yahting, but most didn't even realize their events were considered an official part of the Olympic schedule (International Olympic Committee, 2000, p.1). The types of physical activity women were permitted to participate in were confined to non-strenuous, non-competitive contests. "When women did participate, they did so in the main for social reasons and seldom in competition (Hargreaves, 1994, p.89)." This is opposed to masculine building violence and tests of strength such as football, and boxing; which were seen as socially unacceptable for female participation.
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A glaring example of women's progress is in the field of education. At first, girls had been able to accede to primary education only and by the time this was over they were married off. Afterwards, they have been able to carry on up to secondary education. But nowadays, they are being given even greater opportunities. Parents no more sacrifice their daughters for their sons and instead give both of them equal chances. They also have access to tertiary education. According to recent statistics, girls' performance is even more outstanding than their male counterparts.
- Word count: 1053
It was suggested that the Sydney 2000 Olympics games was rife with drug abusers, cheats and abusive managers. Discuss what may have led to the level of deviance found in the modern Olympic games?
But why were there so many cheats and drug abusers at the modern Olympics? Because of the organization of the Olympics and the Olympics being seen as big business, this promotes deviance. The Olympics are organized in a way in which only one person or team wins the different medals therefore promoting deviance by placing pressure on athletes to win and be the best. Pressure is placed on athletes by themselves, parents, coaches, administrators, sponsors, etc., all of which benefit from the athlete winning.
- Word count: 1009
Goal setting is a highly important tool used in sport and exercise and is a current topic in sport psychology literature.
Specific objective goals let the individual know precisely what they are trying to accomplish. Objective goals can take three different forms. These are outcome, performance and process goals. Outcome goals usually concentrate on an end result, such as coming first in a race. Individuals have little control over outcome goals as it depends on the ability and performance of an opponent. Athletes have more control over performance goals as they encourage improvement relative to past performances, rather than performances of others.
- Word count: 1920
and silver (downhill in 1994) who was in a major skiing accident in Switzerland 1998. It was the final downhill race of the season in Crans Montana, Switzerland and at split-second speed; Street lost control making a turn around a gate near the top of the course and lay fallen with a broken left femur and a torn right knee ``I went through a huge depression,'' Street said. ``I went all the way to rock bottom. I never thought that I ever would experience anything like that in my life.''
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However don't fool yourself that all footballers or baseball players get paid that much because most don't. Only a small percentage do. These sports stars are very talented and there a only a few of them so a lot of people believe they are getting what they deserve. However there are other sports, which don't pay well such as yachting, curling and fishing. In Yachting biggest event the Rolex Middle Sea Race that takes place in Malta a 150,000 prize is for the winner however the race spans 19 days. Fishing is another poorly paid sport. In the biggest Fishing competition in Florida the "Caloosa Catch and Release" averages over �17,500 rewarded in prize money and over 50 people compete for the money.
- Word count: 1451
It is known and has been proven that homosexual men and women have been and still are active in both mainstream and gay community athletics (Hekma, 1994). Although all athletes interact with friends, coaches, teachers, peers, or relatives who are homosexuals quite often they are unaware of these people's sexual orientation (WSF, 2001). Many LGB athletes do not immediately disclose their sexual orientation to teammates and they become an important part of their team both on and off the field.
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I also think that it would be a tragedy to see a women lose her baby from a sports injury she could have avoided. Sporting associations that have pregnant women playing may face lawsuits or compensation claims if a women was to be injured and lose her baby. Sporting associations would need to advise a solicitor about getting the pregnant player to sign a form that indemnifies them from compensation claims if that player is injured. There are no actual legal rules that can currently stop pregnant women from playing sport.
- Word count: 1050
For the majority of athletes, their motivation derives from intrinsic forms. This is usually due to the fact that nearly everyone who gets involved with sports is because they enjoy the excitement of their sport or the social connections they make which in turn leads to enjoyment. It is often said that intrinsic motivation is a better form of motivation than extrinsic due to its durability but the athletes' coach or family can easily destroy it. As with many things related to motivation, different events and situations can lead to different outcomes, it just depends on the nature of the athletes' personality.
- Word count: 1415
The Olympic movement has survived over 100yrs. Explain the reasons for its survival, giving examples of political and other scandals, which have affected the movement.
This was not the way De Coubetin wanted the Olympics to Run. Political Scandals With the increase in the popularity of sport, the games have become a powerful political tool. Some countries use as elite competitors as political ambassadors. One of the main objectives, as stated in the Olympic Charter, of the International Olympic Committee is to, oppose any political abuse of sport and athletes. However, the Olympic games have been influenced by politics for many years. Over the years three Olympic games have been cancelled due to World Wars. In 1920 Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary and Turkey were not permitted to participate because of their role in World War I.
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But many athletes totally disagree with this. Their opinions are that athletes compete at their natural physical level. (source: Matthew McGovern)None insulin dependant athletes have adapted their bodies through hard work and determination over years so as they can naturally perform their best. If a none insulin dependant athlete was to be beaten in competitions their first response id that of the fact that the diabetic athlete has administered access insulin into their blood stream. They may think they are being morally cheated. Insulin works in diabetics in two main ways. In stamina athletes, such as body builders it works in co-ordination with anabolic steroids for instance human growth hormone or testosterone to consolidate muscle tissue.
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Active Schools Active Schools is the cornerstone of Sport England's commitment to involving more people in more sport, particularly young people. The programme is built around two key elements: the Activemark/Activemark Gold and Sportsmark/Sportsmark Gold awards. These national accreditation schemes recognise a school's commitment to providing a quality programme of physical education and school sport. Active Schools is a crucial tool in Sport England's More People programme. It complements and reinforces other elements of Sport England's overall sports development strategy, notably Active Sports and Active Communities.
- Word count: 1904
Watford's aim is to provide facilities for all ages and all abilities in all disciplines of the sport and has nearly 200 active members ranging in age from 7 to 90. To this end the club is a member of several different leagues and together with its own promotions, county and regional events can cater for all levels of ability. The club also works in partnership with the Leisure and Sports Department of Watford Council in promoting athletics in the Watford area.
- Word count: 1403
"Choose a leisure activity and discuss what motivates individuals to participate in this activity. Use theoretical models, perspectives and practical examples to justify your argument"
attracted over 100 000 people. Football as a leisure activity had arrived. There are many reasons for the participation of football between both genders and all ages. Roberts (1996) argues that young people's and adult's sport participation levels are characteristically distributed among a bell-shaped curve. Despite this since the 1980's a major increase has become apparent in the participation of sports and leisurely activities by adults. This indicates that more people are participating in sport and leisure than they were twenty years ago.
- Word count: 1897
And the winner is – that famous athlete who has been taking doping substances to enhance his sporting performance – didn’t he do well
Sport has also developed into a significant social institution and success in sport has become highly valued. This has placed pressure on sports people to become not only successful, but the best. This pressure has contributed to the escalation in the incidence of drug taking and the number of drug related deaths within the sporting community. The drug-takers cynical behaviour has corroded sport's essential purity. The improper or illegal use of drugs and substances such as steroids for the temporary enhancement of athletic performance in competitions has been a frequent subject of inquiry since the 1960s, when drug misuse by athletes to gain an unfair advantage began to rise dramatically.
- Word count: 1840
Our gender affects our performance a great deal. A mans frame is generally wider and taller than a woman's is. Women after they reach puberty develop wider hips which hinders their running ability, whereas a man develops larger muscles due to the increased level of testosterone in their bodies. Women generally have muscles smaller than a mans, so men have a head start already in any power sports such as weightlifting or sprinting which require a lot of physical strength.
- Word count: 1216