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University Degree: Sports Science
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Intra-observer technique rating reliability between T1 and T2 List of Figures Figure Title Page Number Figure 1. Pitch division example Figure 2. Player A mean action distribution for international performances Figure 3. Player A mean action distribution for league performances Figure 4. Player B mean action distribution for international performances Figure 5. Player B mean action distribution for league performances Figure 6. Player A mean action distribution comparison Figure 7. Player B mean action distribution comparison Figure 8. Player A comparison of the mean quality rating of techniques Figure 9. Player B comparison of the mean quality rating of techniques Figure 10.
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Effect of external wrist weights on maximal countermovement vertical jump height in Loughborough University Sports Technology students.
and the effects of neuromuscular training on vertical jump height (Gerritsen, 2000). Computer simulation models have also been used to further investigate jumping, for example the effect of initial jumping posture on maximal vertical jump height (Selbie, 1996). This study investigates the effect of external weight on maximal countermovement vertical jump height. There is currently little knowledge in this area however there has been one study to date, investigating work and power production in the vertical jump under various loads fixed to the upper body or ankles (C.
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Some people do not see this as leisure, but it makes me feel good inside. I do not think that leisure has to be a physical activity either. I think helping a friend out when he is in need is leisure. I think some people use leisure as a spiritual expression. Many people go to church every Sunday to worship God. It makes them feel good. This can also be considered leisure. Most definitions of leisure have to do with activities. These are not activities that pertain to work, but I think can be leisure.
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Just recently I.T.V commentator 'Big Ron' Atkinson was forced to resign following a racist remark made towards Chelsea defender Marcel Desailly during Chelsea's 3-1 defeat to Monaco. Atkinson was not aware that he was still on-air and therefore was left with no choice but to resign. On what was said Atkinson responded with " To the people I offended, particularly Marcel Desailly, I would apologise for the comments I made. It was not an intentional comment, but it was an unfortunate one.
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A comparison of maximal heart rates derived from prediction equations compared to actual laboratory measures for cycling and arm ergometry.
Therefore we know that calculating maximal heart rate is important in the clinical and rehabilitation settings but its also important when testing subjects but getting accurate is complicated and unlikely unless performed using direct methods of assessment. For our study we performed maximal exercise tests using arm and cycle ergometers, we done this as the highest HR values are obtained in maximal tests conducted in the laboratory (Santos et al., 2005, p.170) however maximal exercise testing is not feasible in many settings (Tanaka et al., 2001, p.153)
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Figure 2. A Table showing the macronutrient intake, composition of CHO and composition of Fat consumed on day one. Figure 2 shows in detail the breakdown of the macronutrients and their composition. It also shows the total energy intake (1481 kcal) for Day One of the weighed food diary. For an average male this is too low. An average male should consume around 2500 kcal a day, slightly more or less depending on build and lifestyle. Day Two Figure 1. The macronutrients of a weighed food diary. Day Two. The above chart again shows the composition of the subjects diet.
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Cognitive performance is negatively affected by time-since-waking and by sleep loss; therefore sports performance with a substantial cognitive component will be affected by both of these factors as well as by a circadian component parallel to body tempera
Flexibility has been found to be lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Lowest flexibility has been recorded between 05:00h and 09:00h in the morning and highest between 18:00h and 21:00h. (Atkinson, 1994; cited in Drust et al., 2005). It has also been found that stiffness in the knee joint is similar to that of body temperature, with the highest values being recorded in the evening (Wright et al.,; cited in Drust et al., 2005) Conversely, fine motor skills such as balance, hand-steadiness and co-ordination appeared better in the morning (Reilly, 1997). Reilly (2000)
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The electrical impulses are made while the heart is beating with the hearts rhythm. It provides a method of examining the heart rate during a range of physical activities and stress testing. Electrocardiograms assess if patients have had heart attacks of suspected coronary artery disease. The standard ECG uses ten cables to obtain twelve electrical views of the heart. There are three limb leads, three uni-polar leads and six chest leads. For an improved reading the electrodes are placed onto the torso to replace those that are usually placed onto the ankles and wrists. This should minimise any limb interference during the exercise.
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The reasons for testing anaerobic power and capacity are to determine the body's ability to activate the immediate and short-term energy systems during maximal exercise efforts. METHOD Three individuals volunteered to take part in the study (one male, two females). The subjects height, weight, age and training profiles were recorded before testing and they were informed about the experimental procedures The seat was first adjusted to suit each individual's limb length (they should allow a slight bend at the knee), and the resistive force was calculated.
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science is the study of some aspect of human behaviour' (Collins, 1995:1485). Collins Today's English Dictionary also states that 'anything which is studied in a systematic way can be called a science' (Collins, 1995:727). Therefore, science, in the context of the world of art (dance) is interpreted to mean gaining knowledge about the body to enhance performance. This is something discovered through research, testing and analysing. Still referring to definitions from English dictionaries, art too, is found to be explained in several ways. It is a 'skill' (Klein, 1966:108), where an artist would paint a picture, or where a choreographer would create a dance.
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In order to get the most out of the human body and to succeed in sport, it is necessary to use appropriate training principles to train these specific energy pathways, thus making them more resilient to fatigue. The Anaerobic (ATP-CP) Energy System The ATP-CP energy pathway supplies between 8 - 10 seconds worth of energy and is used for short bursts of exercise such as the 100 meter sprint. It first uses up any adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stored in the muscle, approximately 2-3 seconds worth, and then uses creatine phosphate (CP)
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When considering any type of health and fitness plan, it is imperative that the anatomical and physiological differences are understood (Shankar, 1999). The following section highlights specific differences in special populations. Obesity Obesity is fast becoming the developed world's biggest health problem, with over 9,000 deaths a year in England being caused by obesity alone (WHO, 2006). Adult obesity rates have almost quadrupled over the last 25 years, and two thirds of UK adults are now considered overweight or obese.
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It is alleged that modern day sports are highly commercialised. Critically explore whether or not the process of commercialisation has ruined sport
The sports functions and events that did exist during this era were associated as religious festivals. The Greek Olympics were one of the events that took place at that time and the main purpose of the event was to reinforce religious values. Sport was not organised as we know it to be today. There was no organised form of sport for example there was no NBA league for elite basketball players. The events that took place were small scale competitions that were arranged by the local church or people of the village. The athletes that did participate in any events and they were not paid to perform.
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Caution should be taken when interpreting these results because they were obtained using adolescents. These results have, however, have more recently been demonstrated in studies utilising adult populations, which have illustrated a strong inverse association between aerobic fitness and both CHD risk factor status (Whaley et al, 1999), as well as CHD mortality (Farrell et al, 1998). It should, however, be emphasised that Farrell et al, (1998) could not determine differences between all-cause and CHD mortality due to the small number of CHD deaths presented in their study and Whaley et al, (1999)
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Burton et al, (1994) also found that programs were successful, with case studies providing strong support for the effectiveness of individual PST programs. In order to obtain a baseline assessment and produce a psychological profile of the subject, various methods were conducted to analyse the subject, these included a Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS), a structured interview with open-ended questions and finally a 'performance profile' was completed. When first meeting with the subject, he was asked to fill out a informed consent form (shown in appendix D)
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The VO2 slow component represents additional oxygen cost that is superimposed on the rapid phase of oxygen uptake kinetics observed during exercise onset (Gaesser and Poole, 1996). The slow component has been defined as the difference between VO2 measured at 3 minutes of constant-load exercise and end-exercise (Gaesser and Poole 1996; Womack et al, 1995). The magnitude of the VO2 slow component is elevated with increased intensities of exercise above the lactate threshold. Elevated body or muscle temperature has been proposed to contribute to the VO2 slow component; however, these observations are based on the temperatures rise during the constant-load
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Does counter-movement effect jump performance and does using the arms further this improvement when performing a vertical jump?
A later study conducted by Harman et al (1990) proposed that CM use's the stretch-shortening cycle in which eccentric muscle stretching stores elastic energy, which is in part released during immediate subsequent concentric muscle contraction. Hudson (1986) found a significant (P<0,05) relationship between the use of stored elastic energy and CMJ height. A recent study conducted by Bobbert et al (1996) supports this, they concluded that greater jump height in CMJ's seemed to be due primarily to the fact that CMJ's allow the subjects to attain greater joint momentum.
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Contemporary theory no longer uses this term. Instead, recovery oxygen uptake or excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) defines the excess oxygen uptake above the resting level in recovery (Gaesser & Brooks, 1984). (Hill and Lupton 1923) concluded that EPOC occurred due to the oxidation of 20% of the lactate produced during the exercise to provide the ATP necessary to reconvert the remaining 80% lactate to glycogen. Two of the lactic acid removal post-exercise are oxidation to pyruvate and subsequent generation of ATP via the Krebs cycle (non-energy requiring process) or re-synthesis to glucose/glycogen (energy requiring process). Many studies involving steady-state exercise have identified exercise intensity as a primary factor that effects EPOC.
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Three of these sport specific models have received scientific support (Weinberg and Gould 2003). However all approach this matter from a slightly different angle, Smith (1986) designed a cognitive-affective model which acknowledged the high physical/mental pressures and demands placed upon athletes, which are perceived differently by individuals leading to a final resultant of stress or burnout. Silva (1990) developed a negative-training response model which illustrated that physical training in athletes causes physiological and psychological responses which can be both positive and negative.
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For the purpose of analysis, a schematic technique movement analysis table was created (see appendices), (Bartlett, 1999; Graham-Smith and Pearson, 2005). The technical aspects of the agility turn were broken down into distinct phases in order to aid successful performance analysis, any limiting physical attributes to technique could then be located when comparing subject test and normative data (see appendices), (Graham-Smith and Pearson, 2005). Physical attributes such as speed, strength and power are related to improved agility, interventions using plyometric drills and resistance training have been shown to increase agility performance (Kraemer et al., 2003; Kyrolainen et al., 2005).
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Methods of estimating deaths attributable to obesity Theoretically, estimating deaths caused by obesity could be done by an incidence based approach - investigating the underlying cause of death listed on death certificates. By going through all the death certificates in a specific time period, one could add up the number of death rooted from obesity to find out the total sum. This method relies on the judgment of physicians in determining actual cause of death. However, there are a lot of problems that must be overcome before this method could be considered.
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The test is easy to administer, allowing the experimenter to familiarize with the use of apparatus easily; it is time saving, requiring no more than an hour to construct a personal profile (Schuerger, 1992); it is economical, allowing a wide range of practitioners to carry it out regardless of their financial resources. Since the test administration is straight forward and no time limit is applied, it does not require particularly active supervision by the experimenter (Schuerger, 1992). With the evolution of technology, the 16 PF can now be taken on the internet and scoring can be done on computer, meaning a significant increase in the efficiency and practicability of the test.
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Evaluation of the laboratory based football-specific treadmill protocol and the effect of high ambient temperature on physiological responses
The aim of the present paper is to critically evaluate this laboratory based football-specific treadmill protocol as a simulation of football match-play and further examine the effect of acute heat on physiological responses. Method Subject Six physically active male soccer players were recruited. The characteristics of the players are shown in Table 1. The participants were tested in post-absorptive state, after an overnight fast, with no vigorous exercise or any alcohol consumption in the 24 hours prior to testing. Each subject was tested at the same time of the day to prevent the effects of circadian variation on the variables measured (Reilly and Brooks, 1986, as cited in Drust et al., 2000).
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Bruce Ogilvie began work with athletes and teams and in 1966 with Thomas Tutko wrote Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them. Also in 1966 Spence JT and Spence KW saw a relationship between being psyched up and performance which they called Drive Theory. Sport psychology began to be an applied field between 1975 and 1999 when much advancement took place. Notably The Journal of Sport Psychology is established in 1979, 1988 U.S Olympic team is accompanied by a recognized sport psychologist and The Journal of Applied Sport Psychology begins in 1989.
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Which one should you pick? Each contender for the 7th Generation Console War is in the ring, but which one will emerge victorious in the end.
(It is doing well for the moment though) Pricing Xbox 360 - $400 and �270 which is fairly well priced, as you do get a year of Xbox live included, and a whole load of accessories. There is cheaper version though, which leaves out most unnecessary bits. Nintendo Wii - $250 and �180, an amazing price. This is so cheap; you get the essentials needed to play and Wii Sports. Wii Sports does come with 5 mini games that anyone can start playing regardless of age or experience.
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