• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Extended Mind: Can We Sense When Someone is Staring?

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐The Possibility of the Extended Mind: The Sensation of Being Stared At? ________________ K. Cameron June 5, 2012 RLST 2326 The extended mind is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular among many different disciplines to determine the separation point of the mind and the surrounding environment. A well-known man, Rupert Sheldrake, is particularly interested in the concept of the extended mind and has written many books, articles and papers expressing his experiments. In Rupert Sheldrake?s Seven Experiments That Could Change the World: A Do-It-Yourself Guide to Revolutionary Science, there are multiple reasons why Sheldrake believes that the mind extends into the environment in which he explains using brain and heart metaphors as well as ancient religious and general beliefs from around the world. Sheldrake (2002, 100) describes the exhibit in the Natural History Museum in London as the brain being ?the cockpit of a modern jet plane, with banks of dials and computerized flight controls? as well as the ?two empty seats? representing the left and right hemispheres of the brain. Sheldrake then goes on to explain traditional peoples as well as the Tibetans beliefs of the heart as ?more than a center of emotion, love and compassion: [but being] a center of thought and imagination? (Sheldrake, 2002, 102). ...read more.


Another example of a rational explanation was by David A. Marks when his eight-year-old son Michael felt like he was being stared at while walking in their neighborhood. Marks had then ?asked Michael how he knew that unless he had already been staring at them? in which he realized the truth and became less disturbed. The paper mentioned that this was also what Titchener ?attributed to the cause of the feeling of being stared at to the staree, not the starer, and so the attribution of causality to the starer is false, a misinterpretation? (Colwell and Marks, 2000). Sheldrake?s investigations consisted of two types of experiments; a feedback experiment where they find out whether or not they were right about thinking they were being stared at immediately or the second experiment where no feedback was given back. Many people replicated these experiments using different people and slightly different time intervals. Robert A. Baker used methods similar to those of Sheldrake?s. Baker wrote an article in response to Sheldrake?s methods and the reasons why he did not believe that they proved the extended mind. Sheldrake then wrote a review against Baker?s procedures and results. In Baker?s second experiment, he decided to have 20- one minute intervals, in which five of the randomized minutes would be when the experimenter stared at the subject and the other 15 minutes would be when the experimenter concentrated on a completely different topic. ...read more.


With all of this information, I feel that it is easy to go through the work of another and pinpoint every little thing that could possibly be wrong or done differently to prove something else. I feel that this is a very biased topic and it is hard to prove one side of the story to a person from the other side and vice versa. For this topic, or concept rather, the scientist, philosopher, psychologist, etcetera, has to be open minded and not have a view before doing any research or investigations. Sheldrake repeated throughout a few of his articles that he felt Marks, Baker and Colwell were more doing experiments to prove it didn?t exist rather than trying to find the truth, while Sheldrake is so convinced that staring is in fact felt, it is hard for Sheldrake to see any scientific knowledge as to why people are so skeptical of the concept. With all the new technology and concepts in the world today, it may be that the extended mind can be proved, but as of this day in time, I feel that it does not exist, but is rather the off-chance that you just happened to be looking around and made eye contact with someone who saw you moving in their peripheral vision and Sheldrake?s methods are hard to tell if they are valid. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Cognitive Psychology essays


    But among this percentage of the population directly affected by the abortion question, a large number may actually be more sympathetic to its use as a birth control method when other methods fail or are unavailable (Lovenduski & Outshoorn: 1986:44).

  2. Descartes(TM) view of the mind and how it relates to the human being

    Although idealism is not a valid solution it is still the subject of much study today (Nagel, T. 1998). Descartes' correspondence with Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia began in May 1643 when he was asked to describe in detail the interaction of the substances between mind and body.

  1. Are people rational?

    in this case (Griggs & Cox 1982). Cheng & Holyoak (1985) found that even if the rule is not explicitly familiar, but the task uses thematic material (such as transit status and different innoculations) and participants are given a real-life scenario where they might have to implement the rule (in this case, imagining that they are a

  2. A study to show the relationship between repetition and the belief in Extrasensory Perception ...

    who came up with the terms sheep and goats respectively for believers in ESP and disbelievers in ESP. There have been several studies into ESP which have all shown similar findings that sheep are more likely then goats to score significantly above the level expected by chance and for disbelievers to score significantly below that level.

  1. Does emotion reside in the realm of private knowledge in the sense that is ...

    But is emotion only in private knowledge? Take the Hussini case for instance, the Howard government was set on Hussini being a terrorist, that even after he had been cleared of the charge, the government still forced that he was a terrorist.

  2. How reliable is Eyewitness testimony, and what can be done to improve it?

    Loftus and others expanded further with work on Compromise memory, making sense of the conflict between what we saw, and what we are told happened. The effect is compounded the closer the introduction of the conflicting information, to the requirement to recall (Hall, Loftus & Tousignant, 1984)

  1. Envisage a feasible design or designs so as to enable the 'bathing experience' to ...

    and some anthropometric dimensions (eg stature, standing and sitting eye height). The different effects that age, gender and the two combined had on the measured variables maybe important considerations in the product design process. The fact that ageing may mean that some older adults are more at the level of

  2. Using evidence drawn from Chapter 2 explain how theory of mind may have evolved ...

    Humans are highly social and therefore developed complex psychological traits that enable effective interaction in society. The ability to predict how others feel or think and to act deceptively improves survival and increases reproductive success (Clegg, 2007). By acting deceptively individuals may gain competitive advantages over others.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work