• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Theories of Human Development and Learning

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Theories of Human Development There are many different Theories of human development. Each theory provides a framework of general principles that can be used to interpret our observations. George Boeree (1997, p.1) states 'theory is a model of reality that helps us to understand, explain, predict and control that reality'. The interpretation of human development theories varies from different prospectives, but they all attempt to provide a basic understanding of individual development and behavior. These theories are loosely grouped together in four main categories, Psychoanalytical (social and personality theories), Cognitive (the mind and its importance), Behavioural (external factors) and Humanistic (Individual potential) concepts. All of the theories have their own strengths and weakness, along with their own possible application. Each suggests instructional and guidance processes most apt to enhance the way they go through dramatic changes on the way from baby to adulthood. Comparisons, contrasts, and criticisms are expressed on models established by notables as Piaget, Erickson, Bruner, Maslow, Freud and Rogers. When taken as a body of knowledge, each model affords a part of the entire panorama of human development and addresses the vast impact it has on the behavior and development of the individual. Sigmund Freud (1856 -1939), the fore father of classical psychoanalytical theory, emphasizes that our actions are the results of ideas that arise in our unconscious level of awareness. Freud proposed that essential childhood development needed three stages to complete which are characterized by sexual interest and pleasure on particular parts of the body. ...read more.

Middle

Pellone (1991, p.2) says 'Many different theories, primarily concerned with questions of how the mind works in relation to the learning process, have been proposed by psychologists over the years' In Piaget's cognitive framework, the process of acquiring knowledge begins at birth, the 'sensorimotor period', begins with inborn reflexes, to an awareness that things exist without always being in sight. The 'pre-operational period' covers the stage of language acquisition, and a more conceptual view of the world. The 'concrete operational period' develops a person's capability of logical mental activities and the 'formal operational stage' characterizes the capacity to reason in abstract terms (Pellone 1991, p.3). A very influential behavioural approach to learning was the work of B.F. Skinner in the 1940's. The central notion of Skinner's work is that animals and human beings depend wholly on the reward and punishment system. Hence the intrinsic belief that motivates humans and animals to get the reward we do the desired behaviour. Pellone (1991, p.2) says ideally a teacher tells a student whether or not they have given the correct answer (feedback), praises them for giving a correct answer (positive reinforcement), or prompts the ones who may need a hint to answer a question (cueing). Gestalt psychologists or cognitive psychologists place great emphasis on the problem solving aspect of thinking. The learner's discovery of patterns, relationships and the transferring of knowledge to new problems. This type of learning is called schematic which uses previously learned ideas and concepts in order to understand and simplify new learning (Pellone1991, p.2). ...read more.

Conclusion

While all teens develop into young adults, they won't all follow the same timeline. Adolescents face a major task in creating a stable identity to become complete and productive adults. Over time adolescents develop a scense of themselves that transcends the many changes in their experiences and roles. They find their role in society through active searching which leads to discoveries about themselves. Conclusion Many theories exist which try to explain the process of learning. Each, more than others, tends to emphasise certain aspects of the teacher-learning process. Focusing on selected learning theories and implementing teaching strategies to suit the individual's needs will often influence the learner's readiness to learn and their academic journey through life. Reference List Berger, K. (1998) Theories and methods. In The developing person through the life span. 4th edn. New York: Worth. Pp.29-50. Boeree, G. (1997). Personality Theories Electronic version <http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/persintro.html> Retrieved 12 May, 2005 Knowles, M (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species 3rd edn. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential Learning: New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc Legge, K 2005, 'Mitchell and Cassandra: together apart', The Australian, 17 May. Martin, F. & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum. Pellone, G 1991. 'Learning theories and computers in TAFE education'. Australian Journal of Education Technology, vol. 7, no1, pp.39-47. Pellone, G 1995. 'Education software design: A literature review'. Australian Journal of Education Technology, vol. 11, no1, pp. 68-84. Turner, J. and helms, D (1995) Humanistic theory. In Lifespan development. 5th edn. Forth Worth: Harcourt Brace. Pp.68-70. Wu, S. (2005). Psychology: Erikson's Eight Stages of Human Development Electronic version <http://psychology.about.com/library/weekly/99091500b.htm> Retrieved 12 May, 2005 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Developmental Psychology essays

  1. What is human development? Discuss the roles of maturation and learning in human development.

    They exert a major influence on both intellect and personality. 'Much of an infant's knowledge of the world comes from the senses and from motor activity. A child who has a hearing loss is at risk of delayed language development2.'

  2. Self-Report Measurement of Adult Attachment: An Integrative Overview.

    Table 2, for example, shows strong correlations between the subscales of Collins and Read's (1990), Armsden and Greenberg's (1987), and West and Sheldon-Keller's (1994) measures. These correlations are especially impressive given that each measure was developed under a different conceptual rubric and for a different research purpose.

  1. Piaget and Erikson

    This can lead them to a sense of control and independence or confusion and insecurity about their future. When one becomes an adult, according to Erikson four more stages or life crisis are present in an individuals life. One could notice that although the set ages in both theories differ

  2. Discuss, Compare and Contrast Piaget and Vygotsky&amp;amp;#146;s Learning Theories.

    Instructions are kept brief, using actions alongside words to avoid confusion. Encouragement to manipulate physical objects, such as the 'glass of water' experiment (Conservation of Liquid Problem), help the child to understand constant mass; whilst engaging in conversation about the experiment facilitates the child with the understanding of conversation and

  1. Language acquisition is a considerable achievement.

    and 'deep structure' (the meaning) is central to the LAD. He holds that a 'Transformational Generative Grammar', a set of rules applied to the deep structure to transform it to the surface structure, underpins the 'creativity' in language, i.e. the fact that we can produce an infinite number of utterances from a finite number of words.

  2. Learning theories

    So as to understand the classical conditioning we have to examine its process more closely. The principles of classical conditioning, including: unconditioned stimulus and response, and conditioned stimulus and response. In the first stage, when giving a dog some food it will salivates in response to the food.

  1. Psychological and Sociological Perspectives On Human Development and Behaviour.

    Individuals who fail to progress pass this stage is obsessively clean and orderly, and intolerant of those who are not. They may also be very careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, conforming and passive-aggressive. An infant develops in several ways; there is physical development, cognitive development, intellectual development, emotional development and

  2. For this assignment I will produce a case study showing how psychological theories can ...

    Lorenz group followed him around everywhere. Lorenz distinguished the two groups by marking them. He then placed them altogether with their mother. They both quickly separated, one followed the natural mother and the other followed Lorenz. The long-term effect of imprinting is on the choice of partner for mating.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work