• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To Investigate How Aggression Affects Performance in Rugby

Extracts from this document...


To Investigate How Aggression Affects Performance in Rugby Aggression is the intent to physically, verbally or psychologically harm someone who is motivated is avoid such harm. Baron (1977) defines aggression as the following: "Any behavior directed at the goal of harming or injuring another being who is motivated to avoid such treatment." There are certain types of aggression, some that lie within the rules or laws of the game and others that do not. Hostile or reactive aggression is said to be aggressive acts motivated by anger that have the intent and goal of harming another but also is not with in the rules/laws. An example of this in rugby would be a dangerous tackle above the shoulders/ round the head or neck of the opposition, a spear tackle, were a player is lifted off the ground and dropped head first into the ground also throwing a punch is outside the rules and can result in a sending off or sin bin. Another form of aggression is instrumental aggression, which are aggressive acts that are intended to harm another person with the goal of achieving a goal without suffering. ...read more.


Tiger (1969) defines sport as being a socially acceptable way of releasing aggression. In that it contains laws and ways of controlling aggression that might course harm. This is evident within rugby, which contains many laws in order to do so. However Baron and Richardson (1994) say that participating in aggressive sports actually increases aggressive tendencies. For example in rugby England and Australia have a great rivalry that can extend past the playing field due to the history of the two nations. There are many causes of aggression one of which is "Frustration" (a feeling of annoyance at being hindered or criticized from/for achieving a goal). In the case of rugby, when the opposition prevent the scoring in other words the inability to reach a goal leads to frustration, frustration then invokes an aggressive drive this can then increase the likelihood of taking part in aggressive behaviors. Figure 2: shows where frustration comes from and leads to. The diagram above shows the beginning of frustration and how this leads to aggressive acts by Donald (1939). This however was revised by Berkowitz as shown below Figure 3: Aggressive acts can also be imitated this is better known as the social learning theory (Bandura 1986). ...read more.


However, Silva (1979, 1980) suggested that aggression could hinder performance in that attention is focuses away from the task at hand, or arousal has increased past the optimal level Figure 4 shows a diagram of the inverted U theory X Y Y axis = arousal X axis = performance The diagram above shows the inverted U theory, which suggests that there is an optimal performance at a certain time during an exercise and if this optimal arousal level is breeched, due to frustration, or anger towards another player or to highly motivated then performance of the activity or game will decrease. This can then lead to frustration due to the fact the goal has not been reached. It is therefore the job of the coach within the rugby team to find out how to reach and what reaches the optimal arousal of each playing in order to increase teams performance. To conclude aggression can either hinder or if improve performance as long as arousal levels are not breeched. Don't know how I can expand on this conclusion advice please ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Social Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Social Psychology essays

  1. Explain the importance of team building, the stages in the development of team cohesion ...

    concern for individuals to be prolific unless part of an unsuccessful team. This shows that cohesion has a positive effect on performance. Having too many individuals in a team will result in poor cohesion. 'Although all the attributes and skills needed for an ideal working relationship are important at every

  2. Comparing and contrasting the Social learning theory of aggression with the Frustration-Aggression theory of ...

    Johnson et al.(1972) conducted an experiment on rats to prove a 'genetic timer' for aggression, however whole of the theory can be criticized for being incomplete, reductionist and over simplistic. The genetic timer in rats could be hardly generalized to humans.

  1. In half of the reported cases of domestic violence it was found that both ...

    Negativity is but half of the nature of aggression. Aggression can have very positive results. For example, a non-aggressive hockey player gets thrown around and will therefore not perform very well in a bellicose sport. On the other hand an aggressive player will not allow himself to be thrown around like the aforementioned player and will most likely win

  2. An eight-page paper discussing the cause of aggressiveness in humans - nature or nurture

    on emotional and mental state of mind, whether it is aggressiveness or any other characteristic and the impact of environment and experiences on the aggressive nature of the person. The study goes to show that innate nature may predetermine how aggressive a person can get but it is the external forces that play detrimental roles in man's aggressive behavior.

  1. Personality and aggression

    It involves the basic attitudes, values, interests and motives. The inner core is unlikely to change majorly through out a person's life although there may be slight changes. So there are many things that make up your personality, the main four factors that influence how we respond in a given

  2. Personality Correlates (Aggression and Impulsivity) and their Predictive Ability to Self-Report Delinquency

    This leads us into the theoretical need for understanding personality correlates and delinquency. There seems to be continued debate as to the predictive ability of thus far identified personality factors that may be related to delinquency (Binder, 1988; Eysenck & Gudjonsson, 1989; Farrington, 1992).

  1. The Mertonian Principles Revised: Can the Normative Structure of SciencePrevent Fraud?

    Communality entails that scientific findings should be freely shared with others, whilst secret or classified research is antithetical to the spirit of science. Disinterestedness refers to the fact that the scientist's research be guided not by personal motives (e.g. profit), but by the wish to extend scientific knowledge.

  2. Comparing the portrayal of violence and aggression in Masse Mensch (Ernst Toller), Mario and ...

    Mann draws very close parallels between the political circumstances between the two countries in Mario und der Zauberer, hence the political significance of its publishing, and the setting of his novel, Italy. All three novels draw on strong political ideals and with the writers' adversity to them.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work